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Recent studies have shown that paclitaxel leads to activation of Raf-1 kinase and have suggested that this activation is essential for bcl-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that, in addition to paclitaxel, other agents that interact with tubulin and microtubules also induce Raf-1/bcl-2 phosphorylation, whereas(More)
The history of the development of Taxol (paclitaxel) as an anticancer drug is reviewed, and some aspects of the phytochemistry of Taxus species and of the medicinal chemistry of taxol are discussed. The nature of the taxol-tubulin interaction is then described, with an emphasis on studies that led to the discovery and experimental proof of the T-taxol(More)
Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract obtained from the roots of the Madagascan plant Albizia gummifera led to the isolation of three new cytotoxic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gummiferaosides A-C (1-3). The structures of these new compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-3 showed(More)
Our finding that an analog of paclitaxel (Taxol) modified at position C-2 (2-debenzoyl-2-(m-azidobenzoyl)paclitaxel) was substantially more active than paclitaxel in promoting tubulin assembly [Chaudhary et al. (1994) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 4097-4098] led us to perform an analysis of the modulating effects of microtubule-associated proteins, GTP, and(More)
This review covers advances in the discovery, preclinical and clinical development of potential anticancer agents based upon the diterpenoid taxane skeleton. The anticancer properties of approved clinical agents of this class are not discussed, but the review documents how, 13 years post-approval of paclitaxel (Taxol), the base taxane structure is still(More)
1. Anaerobic incubation of levamisole with human intestinal flora resulted in the formation of three thiazole ring-opened metabolites, namely, levametabol-I, II and III. These new hydroxamic lactam-type metabolites were isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. 2. Various pure cultures of human intestinal bacterial strains were shown, by(More)
A number of paclitaxel analogues with a 5-membered A-ring (A-nor-paclitaxels, or (15-->1)-abeo-paclitaxels) have been prepared in order to determine whether analogues of this class might have improved bioactivity as compared with paclitaxel. Most of the compounds synthesized were less active than paclitaxel, but one analogue was equivalent to paclitaxel in(More)
 A room temperature biochemical assay, based on centrifugal removal of tubulin polymer, was developed to permit ready detection of paclitaxel analogs more active than the parent compound and to permit reliable quantification of differences in activity relative to paclitaxel in terms of drug concentration. The assay was validated by comparing paclitaxel to(More)