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Aim Intercomparison of mechanistic and empirical models is an important step towards improving projections of potential species distribution and abundance. We aim to compare suitability and productivity estimates for a well-understood crop species to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of mechanistic versus empirical modelling. Methods We compared four(More)
Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established. Using modelled projected shifts in the distributions of(More)
Climate change poses profound, direct, and well-documented threats to biodiversity. A significant fraction of Earth's species is at risk of extinction due to changing precipitation and temperature regimes, rising and acidifying oceans, and other factors. There is also growing awareness of the diversity and magnitude of responses, both proactive and(More)
INTRODUCTION Climate change directly threatens a significant fraction of the Earth's species. Changing precipitation and temperature conditions likely will alter the geographical ranges of species and may drive many to extinction (Parmesan & Yohe, 2003; Thomas et al., 2004). Climate change is also likely to trigger a wide range of secondary impacts, whereby(More)
A s Earth's climate continues to change at an unprecedented rate 1 , people face mounting impacts. Ongoing research since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 2007 assessment report underscores the urgent need for rapid progress on national and global adaptation efforts 2. From sea-level rise to heightened hurricane activity, longer and more(More)
House-sparrow populations have declined sharply in Western Europe in recent decades, but the reasons for this decline have yet to be identified, despite intense public interest in the matter. Here we use a combination of field experimentation, genetic analysis and demographic data to show that a reduction in winter food supply caused by agricultural(More)
BACKGROUND The world is facing an increased threat from new and emerging diseases, and there is concern that climate change will expand areas suitable for transmission of vector borne diseases. The likelihood of vivax malaria returning to the UK was explored using two markedly different modelling approaches. First, a simple temperature-dependent,(More)
The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus(More)
Much of the biodiversity-related climate change impacts research has focused on the direct effects to species and ecosystems. Far less attention has been paid to the potential ecological consequences of human efforts to address the effects of climate change, which may equal or exceed the direct effects of climate change on biodiversity. One of the most(More)
International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized.(More)
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