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Insecticide resistance is one of the most widespread genetic changes caused by human activity, but we still understand little about the origins and spread of resistant alleles in global populations of insects. Here, via microarray analysis of all P450s in Drosophila melanogaster, we show that DDT-R, a gene conferring resistance to DDT, is associated with(More)
Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they(More)
Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing is a powerful new method for targeted sequencing across the genomes of many individuals. This approach has broad potential for genetic analysis of non-model organisms including genotype-phenotype association mapping, phylogeography, population genetics and scaffolding genome assemblies through linkage(More)
Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for pest control. Bt-resistant insect strains have been studied, but the molecular basis of resistance has remained elusive. Here, we show that disruption of a cadherin-superfamily gene by retrotransposon-mediated insertion was linked to high levels of resistance(More)
Environmentally benign insecticides derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides, but their success will be short-lived if pests quickly adapt to them. The risk of evolution of resistance by pests has increased, because transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bt are being grown(More)
The risk of rapid pest adaptation to an insecticide is highly dependent on the initial frequency of resistance alleles in field populations. Because we have lacked empirical estimates of these frequencies, population-genetic models of resistance evolution have relied on a wide range of theoretical estimates. The recent commercialization of genetically(More)
The cell surfaces of microorganisms display distinct molecular patterns formed from lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycans, or beta1,3-glucans. Binding of these surfaces by pattern recognition proteins such as beta1,3-glucan recognition proteins (betaGRPs) activates the immune response in arthropods. We identified a 40-kDa beta1,3-glucan-binding protein with(More)
Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes can trigger a lethal RNA interference (RNAi) response in insect pests. The application of this concept in plant protection is hampered by the presence of an endogenous plant RNAi pathway that processes dsRNAs into short interfering RNAs. We found that long dsRNAs can be stably produced in(More)
Insect-specific baculoviruses are increasingly used as biological control agents of lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry, and they have been previously regarded as robust to resistance development by the insects. However, in more than a dozen cases of field resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to commercially applied C. pomonella(More)
Evolution of resistance by pests is the main threat to long-term insect control by transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Because inheritance of resistance to the Bt toxins in transgenic crops is typically recessive, DNA-based screening for resistance alleles in heterozygotes is potentially much more efficient than detection of(More)