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BACKGROUND Highly publicised outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis in hospitals in the UK and Ireland and cruise ships in the USA sparked speculation about whether this reported activity was unusual. METHODS We analysed data collected through a collaborative research and surveillance network of viral gastroenteritis in ten European countries (England and(More)
BACKGROUND Encephalitis has many causes, but for most patients the cause is unknown. We aimed to establish the cause and identify the clinical differences between causes in patients with encephalitis in England. METHODS Patients of all ages and with symptoms suggestive of encephalitis were actively recruited for 2 years (staged start between October,(More)
In many forms of apoptosis, cytochrome c released from mitochondria induces the oligomerization of Apaf-1 to form a caspase-activating apoptosome complex. Activation of lysates in vitro with dATP and cytochrome c results in the formation of an active caspase-processing approximately 700-kDa apoptosome complex, which predominates in apoptotic cells, and a(More)
Molecular studies suggest that the simian polyomavirus SV40 is present in the human population, possibly introduced in contaminated polio vaccine. However, no recent seroepidemiological data exist in England on SV40 or on the two human polyomaviruses, BKV and JCV. A comparative age seroprevalence study was undertaken on 2,435 residual sera from 1991 by(More)
Rotaviruses are the major etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. The commonest G types in humans are G1-4 and G9. G12 is a rare human rotavirus (HRV) strain first reported in the Philippines. In this study, 13 G12 strains obtained from a community-based cohort and a hospital-based surveillance system in 2005 were characterized(More)
Rotaviruses are the major etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Two unusual rotavirus strains not previously reported in India, G11P[25] (CRI 10795) and G3P[3] (CRI 33594) were isolated from faecal samples of asymptomatic children in India. The strains were characterized by sequence analysis of the genes encoding the VP7, VP4,(More)
Genotyping of human rotaviruses was performed on 312 rotavirus-positive samples collected from 2,205 young children with diarrhea in the Upper East District of Ghana, a rural community. Of the 271 (86.9%) rotavirus strains that could be VP7 (G) or VP4 (P) characterized, 73 (26.9%) were of G9 specificity. The predominant G9 genotype was G9P[8], which(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the mode of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in a recent epidemic of acute HCV in HIV-infected individuals using linked molecular and clinical epidemiological studies. DESIGN Individuals diagnosed with acute HCV between 1999 and 2005 at three urban HIV units in the UK were enrolled into a phylogenetic and case-control study.(More)
Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a(More)
INTRODUCTION Young infants are protected from measles infection by maternal measles antibodies. The level of these antibodies at birth depends on the level of antibodies in the mother and the extent of placental transfer. We investigated predictors of levels of measles antibodies in newborns in rural Kenya. METHODS A total of 747 paired maternal-cord(More)