David Fredman

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We report evidence for a mechanism for the maintenance of long-range conserved synteny across vertebrate genomes. We found the largest mammal-teleost conserved chromosomal segments to be spanned by highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), their developmental regulatory target genes, and phylogenetically and functionally unrelated "bystander" genes.(More)
There is uncertainty about the true nature of predicted single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in segmental duplications (duplicons) and whether these markers genuinely exist at increased density as indicated in public databases. We explored these issues by genotyping 157 predicted SNPs in duplicons and control regions in normal diploid genomes and fully(More)
Genome-wide association studies identified noncoding SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks encompassing HHEX-IDE and introns of CDKAL1 and FTO [Sladek R, et al. (2007) Nature 445:881-885; Steinthorsdottir V, et al. (2007) Nat. Genet 39:770-775; Frayling TM, et al. (2007) Science 316:889-894]. We show that(More)
Metazoan genomes contain arrays of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs) that span developmental regulatory genes and define regulatory domains. We describe Ancora http://ancora.genereg.net , a web resource that provides data and tools for exploring genomic organization of HCNEs for multiple genomes. Ancora includes a genome browser that shows HCNE(More)
HGVbase (Human Genome Variation database; http://hgvbase.cgb.ki.se, formerly known as HGBASE) is an academic effort to provide a high quality and non-redundant database of available genomic variation data of all types, mostly comprising single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Records include neutral polymorphisms as well as disease-related mutations. Online(More)
In this work, we report likely recurrent horizontal (lateral) gene transfer events of genes encoding pore-forming toxins of the aerolysin family between species belonging to different kingdoms of life. Clustering based on pairwise similarity and phylogenetic analysis revealed several distinct aerolysin sequence groups, each containing proteins from multiple(More)
Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites, we identified the key transcription regulators, their(More)
Genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) are chromosomal regions spanned by highly conserved non-coding elements (HCNEs), most of which serve as regulatory inputs of one target gene in the region. The target genes are most often transcription factors involved in embryonic development and differentiation. GRBs often contain extensive gene deserts, as well as(More)
Opsins have been found in the majority of animals and their most apparent functions are related to vision and light-guided behaviour. As an increasing number of sequences have become available it has become clear that many opsin-like transcripts are expressed in tissues other than the eyes. Opsins can be divided into three main groups: rhabdomeric opsins(More)
Alignments of homologous genomic sequences are widely used to identify functional genetic elements and study their evolution. Most studies tacitly equate homology of functional elements with sequence homology. This assumption is violated by the phenomenon of turnover, in which functionally equivalent elements reside at locations that are nonorthologous at(More)