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The neurotransmitter GABA mediates the majority of rapid inhibition in the CNS. Inhibition can occur via the conventional mechanism, the transient activation of subsynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAA-Rs), or via continuous activation of high-affinity receptors by low concentrations of ambient GABA, leading to "tonic" inhibition that can control levels of(More)
A quatic sediments form the ultimate repositories of past and ongoing discharges of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), many pesticides, and dioxins, as well as mercury (Hg) and methylmer-cury (MeHg). These sediment-bound pollutants serve as long-term exposure sources to aquatic ecosystems. Approximately 10% of the(More)
Considerable debate exists over the primary cause of increased antibiotic resistance (AR) worldwide. Evidence suggests increasing AR results from overuse of antibiotics in medicine and therapeutic and nontherapeutic applications in agriculture. However, pollution also can influence environmental AR, particularly associated with heavy metal, pharmaceutical,(More)
The past decade has brought many advances in our understanding of GABAA receptor-mediated ethanol action in the central nervous system. We now know that specific GABAA receptor subtypes are sensitive to ethanol at doses attained during social drinking while other subtypes respond to ethanol at doses attained by severe intoxication. Furthermore, ethanol(More)
GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with(More)
Ethanol exposure produces alterations in GABA(A) receptor function and expression associated with CNS hyperexcitability, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. Ethanol is known to increase both GABA(A) receptor α4 subunits and protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated ethanol regulation of GABA(A) receptor α4(More)
BACKGROUND Many neurobiological factors may initiate and sustain alcoholism. Recently, dysregulation of the neuroimmune system by chronic ethanol (CE) has implicated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Even though TLR4s are linked to CE initiation of brain cytokine mRNAs, the means by which CE influences neuroimmune signaling in brain in the absence of(More)
Volatile anesthetics and alcohols enhance transmission mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) in the central nervous system, an effect that may underlie some of the behavioral actions of these agents. Substituting a critical serine residue within the GABA(A)R alpha(1) subunit at position 270 with the larger residue histidine(More)
Ethanol exposure produces alterations in GABAergic signaling that are associated with dependence and withdrawal. Previously, we demonstrated that ethanol-induced protein kinase C (PKC) g signaling selectively contributes to changes in GABAA a1 synaptic receptor activity and surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that protein kinase A (PKA) exerts opposing(More)
Despite the pervasiveness of alcohol (ethanol) use, it is unclear how the multiple molecular targets for ethanol contribute to its many behavioral effects. The function of GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) is altered by ethanol, but there are multiple subtypes of these receptors, and thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with(More)