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Studies conducted on amphibian skin secretions over the past 40 years have isolated and identified huge arrays of bioactive peptides, many of which have demonstrated potent anti-microbial activity. Such peptides are attracting increasing attention due to the growing problem of pathogenic microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics. The current(More)
The role of antimicrobial peptides is particularly important in the oral cavity where there is constant challenge by microorganisms. The alpha-defensins are a group of cationic peptides that comprise 30-50% of the total protein in azurophilic granules of human neutrophils. They include the human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1, 2 and 3 which have almost(More)
Skin secretions of Rana saharica were evaluated for the isolation and characterisation of novel insulinotropic peptides. Crude secretions obtained from young adult frogs by mild electrical stimulation of the dorsal skin surface were purified by reverse phase HPLC yielding 80 fractions. In acute 20-min incubations with glucose responsive BRIN-BD11 cells,(More)
Amphibian defensive skin secretions are complex, species-specific cocktails of biologically active molecules, including many uncharacterized peptides. The study of such secretions for novel peptide discovery is time-limited, as amphibians are in rapid global decline. While secretion proteome analysis is non-lethal, transcriptome analysis has until now(More)
Two novel bradykinin-related peptides (Ala3,Thr6)-bradykinin and (Val1,Thr3,Thr6)-bradykinin, were identified by a systematic sequencing study of peptides in the defensive skin secretion of the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata. These peptides are the first amphibian skin bradykinins to exhibit amino acid substitutions at the Pro3 position of the(More)
While structural studies of reptile venom toxins can be achieved using lyophilized venom samples, until now the cloning of precursor cDNAs required sacrifice of the specimen for dissection of the venom glands. Here we describe a simple and rapid technique that unmasks venom protein mRNAs present in lyophilized venom samples. To illustrate the technique we(More)
Using a novel technique that we have developed for cloning of amphibian skin secretion peptide cDNAs from lyophilized samples, we report here that maximakinin (DLPKINRKGP-bradykinin) is encoded by two different cDNAs, named BMK-1 and BMK-2, containing either four tandem repeat sequences or a single copy. The open reading frames of both precursor cDNAs were(More)
Bradykinin and (Thr(6))-bradykinin have been identified in the defensive skin secretion of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis. The homologous cDNAs for both peptides were cloned from a skin library using a 3'- and 5'-RACE strategy. Kininogen-1 (BOK-1) contained an open-reading frame of 167 amino acid residues encoding four repeats of bradykinin, and(More)
This study reports the variety of peptides present in the skin secretory peptidome of Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis azurea. Peptide structures, along with post-translational modifications, were elucidated by QTOF MS/MS analysis, cDNA sequencing, or a combination of both. Twenty-two peptides, including 19 novel structures, were identified from six different(More)
We describe a case of acute transverse myelitis following Campylobacter diarrhoea in an adult. The patient presented with diplegia due to a longitudinal spinal cord lesion. The CSF demonstrated an aseptic meningitis. Oligoclonal bands and C. jejuni-specific IgG were detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid at the beginning of the neurological illness. The(More)