David Fouchet

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BACKGROUND Regulatory T cells are central actors in the maintenance of tolerance of self-antigens or allergens and in the regulation of the intensity of the immune response during infections by pathogens. An understanding of the network of the interaction between regulatory T cells, antigen presenting cells and effector T cells is starting to emerge.(More)
Myxomatosis is a leporipoxvirus that infects the european rabbit, inducing a high mortality rate. Observations lead us to hypothesize that a rabbit carrying maternal antibodies (or having recovered) can be infected (or re-infected) upon being exposed (or re-exposed) to the virus. Infection will lead to mild disease, boosting host immune protection. Using a(More)
Recombination has been conjectured to play an important role for the evolution of drug resistance in HIV. In theoretical models it has been shown that recombination can have both an accelerating and a decelerating effect on the evolution of drug-resistance. Whether the models predict an accelerating or decelerating effect, depends on the specific(More)
Several studies have shown that classical results of microparasite evolution could not extend to the case where the host species shows an important spatial structure. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), responsible for rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), which recently emerged in rabbits, has strains within a wide range of virulence, thus providing an(More)
Many diseases are less severe when they are contracted in early life. For highly lethal diseases, such as myxomatosis in rabbits, getting infected early in life can represent the best chance for an individual to survive the disease. For myxomatosis, early infections are attenuated by maternal antibodies. This may lead to the immunisation of the host,(More)
For several decades, the populations of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have declined, which is partly due to myxomatosis. Vaccination against this disease is expected to contribute to restoration of rabbit populations but the actual impact of myxomatosis is not well known and vaccination might have some negative effects. We analyzed the(More)
In natural populations, virus circulation is influenced by host behavior and physiological characteristics. Cat populations exhibit a great variability in social and spatial structure, the existence of different ways of life within a same population may also result in different epidemiological patterns. To test this hypothesis, we used a logistic regression(More)
Inter-specific interactions between parasites impact on parasite intra-host dynamics, host health, and disease management. Identifying and understanding interaction mechanisms in the wild is crucial for wildlife disease management. It is however complex because several scales are interlaced. Parasite-parasite interactions are likely to occur via mechanisms(More)
In the year 1994, the Serengeti lion population was decimated by a canine distemper disease outbreak. Retrospective investigations showed that this host population had already been in contact with the pathogen in 1981 without any detected sign of disease. As an alternative to the virus mutation hypothesis to explain this difference in virulences observed in(More)
The evolutionary implications of recombination in HIV remain not fully understood. A plausible effect could be an enhancement of immune escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In order to test this hypothesis, we constructed a population dynamic model of immune escape in HIV and examined the viral-immune dynamics with and without recombination. Our(More)