Learn More
We describe " domain fronting, " a versatile censorship circumvention technique that hides the remote endpoint of a communication. Domain fronting works at the application layer, using HTTPS, to communicate with a forbidden host while appearing to communicate with some other host, permitted by the censor. The key idea is the use of different domain names at(More)
While Internet access to certain sites is blocked in some parts of the world, these restrictions are often circumvented using proxies outside the censored region. Often these proxies are blocked as soon as they are discovered. In this paper we propose a browser-based proxy creation system that generates a large number of short-lived proxies. Clients using(More)
We describe a web browser fingerprinting technique based on measuring the onscreen dimensions of font glyphs. Font rendering in web browsers is affected by many factors—browser version, what fonts are installed, and hinting and antialiasing settings, to name a few— that are sources of fingerprintable variation in end-user systems. We show that even the(More)
We introduce the concept of a web-based online scanning service, or OSS for short, and show that these OSSes can be covertly used as proxies in a censorship circumvention system. Such proxies are suitable both for short one-time rendezvous messages and bulk bidirectional data transport. We show that OSSes are widely available on the Internet and blocking(More)
—The utility of anonymous communication is undermined by a growing number of websites treating users of such services in a degraded fashion. The second-class treatment of anonymous users ranges from outright rejection to limiting their access to a subset of the service's functionality or imposing hurdles such as CAPTCHA-solving. To date, the observation of(More)
Recently, the operators of the national censorship infrastructure of China began to employ "active probing" to detect and block the use of privacy tools. This probing works by passively monitoring the network for suspicious traffic, then actively probing the corresponding servers, and blocking any that are determined to run circumvention servers such as(More)
Individual wintering strategies and patterns of winter site fidelity in successive years are highly variable among seabird species. Yet, an understanding of consistency in timing of movements and the degree of site fidelity is essential for assessing how seabird populations might be influenced by, and respond to, changing conditions on wintering grounds. To(More)
Tracking technology has revolutionized knowledge of seabird movements; yet, few studies have examined sex differences in distribution and behavior of small to medium-sized, sexually-monomorphic seabirds. Application of bird-borne geolocation-immersion loggers revealed seasonal segregation in the sexually-monomorphic Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, mainly(More)
Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their(More)
Government censorship of the Internet has been prevalent in many countries in recent years. Researchers have deployed numerous censorship evasion tools to provide open access to information. Censors, in response, have blocked access to evasion tools. In our talk, we will survey the evaluation techniques and censor models that have been used by researchers,(More)