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The neurotransmitter GABA mediates the majority of rapid inhibition in the CNS. Inhibition can occur via the conventional mechanism, the transient activation of subsynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAA-Rs), or via continuous activation of high-affinity receptors by low concentrations of ambient GABA, leading to "tonic" inhibition that can control levels of(More)
GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with(More)
Despite the pervasiveness of alcohol (ethanol) use, it is unclear how the multiple molecular targets for ethanol contribute to its many behavioral effects. The function of GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) is altered by ethanol, but there are multiple subtypes of these receptors, and thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with(More)
The past decade has brought many advances in our understanding of GABA(A) receptor-mediated ethanol action in the central nervous system. We now know that specific GABA(A) receptor subtypes are sensitive to ethanol at doses attained during social drinking while other subtypes respond to ethanol at doses attained by severe intoxication. Furthermore, ethanol(More)
Ethanol exposure produces alterations in GABA(A) receptor function and expression associated with CNS hyperexcitability, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. Ethanol is known to increase both GABA(A) receptor α4 subunits and protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated ethanol regulation of GABA(A) receptor α4(More)
BACKGROUND gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) have been implicated in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH), but the contribution of specific GABA(A)-R subunits is not yet fully understood. The GABA(A)-R alpha 4 subunit often partners with beta2/3 and delta subunits to form extrasynaptic GABA(A)-Rs that mediate tonic(More)
BACKGROUND Although many people consume alcohol (ethanol), it remains unknown why some become addicted. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence (withdrawal) may provide insight into alcohol addiction. While the exact molecular mechanisms of ethanol action are unclear, gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs)(More)
Protein kinases are implicated in neuronal cell functions such as modulation of ion channel function, trafficking, and synaptic excitability. Both protein kinase C (PKC) and A (PKA) are involved in regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors through phosphorylation. However, the role of PKA in regulating GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)-R)(More)
Ethanol exposure produces alterations in GABAergic signaling that are associated with dependence and withdrawal. Previously, we demonstrated that ethanol-induced protein kinase C (PKC) γ signaling selectively contributes to changes in GABAA α1 synaptic receptor activity and surface expression. Here, we demonstrate that protein kinase A (PKA) exerts opposing(More)
BACKGROUND The beta3 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R) has been reported to be important for palate formation, anesthetic action, and normal nervous system function. This subunit has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Angelman syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. To further investigate involvement of this subunit,(More)