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Eukaryotic cells respond to unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), amino acid starvation, or oxidants by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). This adaptation inhibits general protein synthesis while promoting translation and expression of the transcription factor ATF4. Atf4(-/-) cells are(More)
Ideally, an oncolytic virus will replicate preferentially in malignant cells, have the ability to treat disseminated metastases, and ultimately be cleared by the patient. Here we present evidence that the attenuated vesicular stomatitis strains, AV1 and AV2, embody all of these traits. We uncover the mechanism by which these mutants are selectively(More)
The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic(More)
Recent clinical data have emphatically shown the capacity of our immune systems to eradicate even advanced cancers. Although oncolytic viruses (OVs) were originally designed to function as tumour-lysing therapeutics, they have now been clinically shown to initiate systemic antitumour immune responses. Cell signalling pathways that are activated and promote(More)
Acute infection of fibroblastic cell lines by the Indiana strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) usually induces dramatic cytopathic effects and shutoff of cellular gene expression. We have compared a series of independent mutants with differences in shutoff induction and found that M was mutated either in the N-terminus (M(51)R) or C-terminus (V(221)F(More)
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are selected or designed to eliminate malignancies by direct infection and lysis of cancer cells. In contrast to this concept of direct tumor lysis by viral infection, we observed that a significant portion of the in vivo tumor killing activity of two OVs, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and vaccinia virus is caused by indirect(More)
Interferons are circulating factors that bind to cell surface receptors, activating a signaling cascade, ultimately leading to both an antiviral response and an induction of growth inhibitory and/or apoptotic signals in normal and tumor cells. Attempts to exploit the ability of interferons to limit the growth of tumors in patients has met with limited(More)
Controlled expression of cellular and viral genes through alternative precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing requires serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins. The Clk1 kinase, which phosphorylates SR proteins, is regulated through alternative splicing of the Clk1 pre-mRNA, yielding mRNAs encoding catalytically active and truncated inactive polypeptides(More)
The three members of the Clk family of kinases (Clk1, 2, and 3) have been shown to undergo conserved alternative splicing to generate catalytically active (Clk) and inactive (ClkT) isoforms. The prototype, murine Clk1 (mClk1), is a nuclear dual-specificity kinase that can interact with, and cause the nuclear redistribution of, SR proteins. In this study, we(More)
As our understanding of the molecular aspects of human disease increases, it is becoming possible to create designer therapeutics that are exquisitely targeted and have greater efficacy and fewer side effects. One class of targeted biological agents that has benefited from recent advances in molecular biology is designer viruses. Vesicular stomatitis virus(More)