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Eukaryotic cells respond to unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), amino acid starvation, or oxidants by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). This adaptation inhibits general protein synthesis while promoting translation and expression of the transcription factor ATF4. Atf4(-/-) cells are(More)
Recent clinical data have emphatically shown the capacity of our immune systems to eradicate even advanced cancers. Although oncolytic viruses (OVs) were originally designed to function as tumour-lysing therapeutics, they have now been clinically shown to initiate systemic antitumour immune responses. Cell signalling pathways that are activated and promote(More)
Controlled expression of cellular and viral genes through alternative precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing requires serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins. The Clk1 kinase, which phosphorylates SR proteins, is regulated through alternative splicing of the Clk1 pre-mRNA, yielding mRNAs encoding catalytically active and truncated inactive polypeptides(More)
PURPOSE The oncolytic effects of a systemically delivered, replicating, double-deleted vaccinia virus has been previously shown for the treatment of many cancers, including colon, ovarian, and others. The purpose of this study was to investigate the oncolytic potential of double-deleted vaccinia virus alone or in combination with rapamycin or(More)
As cancer treatment tools, oncolytic viruses (OV) have yet to realize what some see as their ultimate clinical potential. In this study, we have engineered a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that is devoid of its natural neurotoxicity while retaining potent oncolytic activity. The envelope glycoprotein (G) of VSV was replaced with a variant(More)
Smac mimetic compounds (SMCs) are experimental small molecules that induce tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-dependent cancer cell death by targeting the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. However, many cancer cell lines are resistant to SMC-mediated apoptosis despite the presence of TNFα. To add insight into the mechanism of SMC-resistance, we used(More)
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease that, for the most part, is not effectively managed with existing therapies. Oncolytic viruses are an attractive class of experimental cancer medicine because, unlike conventional chemotherapeutic and molecularly targeted drugs, they orchestrate tumor cell death in multiple ways simultaneously. In this review, we discuss(More)
Epithelial ovarian cancer is unique among most carcinomas in that metastasis occurs by direct dissemination of malignant cells traversing throughout the intraperitoneal fluid. Accordingly, we test new therapeutic strategies using an in vitro three-dimensional spheroid suspension culture model that mimics key steps of this metastatic process. In the present(More)
Subcellular localization of RNA-binding proteins is a key determinant of their ability to control RNA metabolism and cellular stress response. Using an RNAi-based kinome-wide screen, we identified hexokinase 2 (HK2) as a regulator of the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 in response to hypertonic stress and human rhinovirus infection (HRV). We show that(More)
20 biotechcompany ViraTherapeutics GmbH, which holds intellectual property on 21 rVSV(GP). DvL is listed as inventor on a patent application related to rVSV(GP). Author manuscripts have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication but have not yet been edited.