David F. Richards

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We show that a combination of the immunosuppressive drugs, vitamin D3 and Dexamethasone, induced human and mouse naive CD4(+) T cells to differentiate in vitro into regulatory T cells. In contrast to the previously described in vitro derived CD4(+) T cells, these cells produced only interleukin (IL)-10, but no IL-5 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, and(More)
The mode of action of Leflunomide, an immunomodulatory drug used in rheumatoid arthritis, is debated. This study, using 14C-labeled de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis precursors, proves conclusively that the prime target in proliferating human T-lymphocytes is pyrimidine biosynthesis at the level of dihydroorotic-acid dehydrogenase. Leflunomide (25 and(More)
RATIONALE Little is known about vitamin D status and its effect on asthma pathophysiology in children with severe, therapy-resistant asthma (STRA). OBJECTIVES Relationships between serum vitamin D, lung function, and pathology were investigated in pediatric STRA. METHODS Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D(3)] was measured in 86 children (mean age, 11.7(More)
We previously reported that human CD4+ Tregs secrete high levels of IL-10 when stimulated in the presence of dexamethasone and calcitriol (vitamin D3). We now show that following stimulation by allergen, IL-10-secreting Tregs inhibit cytokine secretion by allergen-specific Th2 cells in an IL-10-dependent manner. A proportion of patients with severe asthma(More)
Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of asthma therapy and mediate the repression of a number of cytokine genes, such as Interleukin (IL)-4, -5, -13, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which are central to the pathogenesis of asthmatic airway inflammation. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates repression by a number of diverse(More)
BACKGROUND Specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) for seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis with unmodified allergen extracts is effective, but limited by risk of side-effects and involves treatment over 3 years. We examined a depigmented polymerized grass pollen extract for immunogenicity and for clinical efficacy in a rush preseasonal regimen. METHODS(More)
Signaling through the TLR family of molecular pattern recognition receptors has been implicated in the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. A role for TLR signaling in the maintenance and/or regulation of Treg function has been proposed, however its functional relevance remains unclear. Here we have shown that TLR9 is highly expressed by human(More)
Greater clinical benefit in controlling the symptoms of asthma is frequently observed through combining moderate doses of inhaled glucocorticoids together with long-acting beta(2)-agonists, as compared with increasing glucocorticoid dosage alone. To address in vitro whether glucocorticoids plus beta(2)-agonists, compared with glucocorticoids alone, have(More)
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α25VitD3) has potent immunomodulatory properties. We have previously demonstrated that 1α25VitD3 promotes human and murine IL-10-secreting CD4(+) T cells. Because of the clinical relevance of this observation, we characterized these cells further and investigated their relationship with Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells.(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) resident in draining lymph nodes (LN) of patients with lung cancer are proposed to have a critical role in stimulating anti-tumor immunity. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are undergoing clinical trials in patients with lung cancer and are likely to target plasmacytoid-DC. The present study, therefore, investigated the capacity of(More)