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No nationwide studies of the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) have been conducted in Canada. Because the IRCM and distribution of mastitis-causing bacteria may show substantial geographic variation, the primary objective of this study was to determine regional pathogen-specific IRCM on Canadian dairy farms. Additionally, the association of(More)
The report upon which the current discussion is based was prepared in response to the increasing interest of the dairy industry in the recording of clinical disease data. The major objective was to introduce guidelines and standards for the recording and presentation of the diseases of dairy cattle. Eight clinically identifiable diseases of economic(More)
The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and the genotypes and species of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in beef and dairy cattle from farms in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, in an effort to determine the potential for zoonotic transmission from these animals. Pooled manure samples were collected from 45 dairy(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of five ketone tests for use with milk to detect subclinical ketosis [defined as > 1200 mumol of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA)/L of blood] in dairy cows. The tests studied were the Ketolac BHB strip to detect BHBA (Hoechst, Unterschleissheim, Germany) and four tests based on sodium nitroprusside(More)
Observations on 7416 Canadian Holstein cows were examined to estimate genetic parameters for the most common diseases of dairy cows. Mastitis, ovarian cyst, ketosis, milk fever, abomasal displacement, and culling that is due to reproductive failure or leg problems were analyzed as binomial traits, assuming an underlying threshold model that included fixed(More)
The objective of this study was to use field data collected by dairy herd improvement programs to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Edited data were 36,074 test-day records of MUN and yields of milk, fat, and protein obtained from 6102 cows in Holstein herds in Ontario, Canada. Data were divided into three sets, for(More)
Livestock movements are important in spreading infectious diseases and many countries have developed regulations that require farmers to report livestock movements to authorities. This has led to the availability of large amounts of data for analysis and inclusion in computer simulation models developed to support policy formulation. Social network analysis(More)
Human noroviruses are the predominant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Strains of norovirus also exist that are uniquely associated with animals; their contribution to the incidence of human illness remains unclear. We tested animal fecal samples and identified GIII (bovine), GII.18 (swine), and GII.4 (human) norovirus sequences, demonstrating(More)
Intramammary infection (IMI), also known as mastitis, is the most frequently occurring and economically the most important infectious disease in dairy cattle. This study provides a validation of the analytical specificity and sensitivity of a real-time PCR-based assay that identifies 11 major pathogen species or species groups responsible for IMI, and a(More)
Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were determined for 1333 dairy cows in various stages of lactation and parity on 93 dairy farms in Ontario. The data were collected in a cross-sectional manner, as part of the 1992 Ontario Dairy Monitoring and Analysis Program. The median serum BHB was 536 mumol/L for all cows, with a range of 0 to 5801 mumol/L. When(More)