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The epidemiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting in the United States is not well known; however, with recent national surveys, the prevalence, incidence, and cost of these procedures can be estimated. The prevalence of CSF shunts in the United States appears to be greater than 125,000, though this is likely an underestimate of the true value. There(More)
OBJECT The authors sought to minimize scalp incisions, blood loss, and operative time by using endoscopically assisted strip craniectomies and barrel-stave osteotomies to treat infants with sagittal suture synostosis. METHODS Four patients, aged 2, 4, 9, and 12 weeks, who presented with scaphocephaly underwent endoscopic midline craniectomies through(More)
Previous treadmill exercise studies showing neuroprotective effects have raised questions as to whether exercise or the stress related to it may be key etiologic factors. In this study, we examined different exercise regimens (forced and voluntary exercise) and compared them with the effect of stress-only on stroke protection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
This study explores the neuroprotective action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induced during physical exercise, which, consequently, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and ameliorates blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in association with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Adult male(More)
We examined the effects of Valsalva's manoeuvre and its four phase on heart rate, central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and laser Doppler cerebellar cortical blood flow (CBF). Brief Valsalva manoeuvres increased CVP and markedly decreased MAP. Cerebral perfusion pressure significantly (P < or = 0.01,(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to present a 16-year experience of treating sagittal synostosis with endoscopic-assisted techniques and postoperative cranial orthotic therapy. In 1996, we introduced the use of endoscopes for the management of sagittal synostosis in four young infants. During the subsequent years, we have treated a total of 256 patients with great(More)
We present our approach to the preoperative preparation and anaesthetic management for awake craniotomy in a 12-year-old boy. Management included conscious sedation with a propofol infusion plus local anaesthetic infiltration of the scalp, periosteum, and dura. The complications which may be encountered during such procedures and their treatments are(More)
OBJECT The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, associated complications, and outcome in patients with sagittal suture craniosynostosis in whom endoscopy-assisted wide-vertex craniotomy and "barrel-stave" osteotomy were performed. METHODS During a 4-year period, 59 patients with sagittal suture synostosis underwent endoscopy-assisted(More)
BACKGROUND Various studies have reported an incidence of venous air embolism (VAE) as high as 82.6% during surgical procedures for craniosynostosis. There has been an increase in the use of minimally invasive, endoseopie surgical procedures, including applications for endoscopic strip craniectomy. The current study prospectively evaluated the incidence of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the safety, efficacy, and results of the early treatment of infants with craniosynostosis using minimally invasive endoscopic strip craniectomies and postoperative helmet molding therapy. METHODS A total of 100 patients with documented diagnosis of craniosynostosis were prospectively studied and treated with endoscopic strip(More)