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The epidemiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting in the United States is not well known; however, with recent national surveys, the prevalence, incidence, and cost of these procedures can be estimated. The prevalence of CSF shunts in the United States appears to be greater than 125,000, though this is likely an underestimate of the true value. There(More)
Previous treadmill exercise studies showing neuroprotective effects have raised questions as to whether exercise or the stress related to it may be key etiologic factors. In this study, we examined different exercise regimens (forced and voluntary exercise) and compared them with the effect of stress-only on stroke protection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
OBJECT The authors sought to minimize scalp incisions, blood loss, and operative time by using endoscopically assisted strip craniectomies and barrel-stave osteotomies to treat infants with sagittal suture synostosis. METHODS Four patients, aged 2, 4, 9, and 12 weeks, who presented with scaphocephaly underwent endoscopic midline craniectomies through(More)
OBJECT The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, associated complications, and outcome in patients with sagittal suture craniosynostosis in whom endoscopy-assisted wide-vertex craniotomy and "barrel-stave" osteotomy were performed. METHODS During a 4-year period, 59 patients with sagittal suture synostosis underwent endoscopy-assisted(More)
Traditionally, surgical correction of craniosynostosis involves calvarial remodeling, large blood losses necessitating transfusions, hospital stays of several days, and less-than-satisfactory results. In this study, outcomes from a minimally invasive technique called endoscopic strip craniectomy, along with a postoperative molding helmet, to correct(More)
OBJECT Individually, the cytokines erythropoietin (EPO) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have both been shown to reduce neuronal damage significantly in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. The authors have previously shown that EPO and IGF-I, when administered together, provide acute and prolonged neuroprotection in cerebrocortical cultures against(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that modulate gene translation. Their expression is altered in many central nervous system (CNS) injuries suggesting a role in the cellular response to stress. Current studies in brain tissue have not yet described the cell-specific temporal miRNA expression patterns following ischemic injury.(More)
Brain injury remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in children. Appropriate therapy involves aggressive management of intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure, which often requires placement of an intraparenchymal ICP monitor or intraventricular catheter. These potentially life-saving interventions require normal(More)
The association between hyponatremia and intracranial pathology has been well described. When accompanied by natriuresis, hyponatremia has most commonly been attributed to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that many of these patients may actually have cerebral mediated salt losses, a disorder(More)