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Comparison of evolutionary patterns among Late Cretaceous marine bivalves and gastropods during times of normal, background levels of extinction and during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction indicates that mass extinctions are neither an intensification of background patterns nor an entirely random culling of the biota. During background times, traits such(More)
For many current issues in macroevolution and macroecology, it is important to know to what degree the attributes of species are shared among closely related lineages, a concept sometimes referred to as species-level heritability. Recently, Webb and Gaston proposed a new method for analyzing the heritability of geographic range size and concluded that range(More)
The evolutionary dynamics underlying the latitudinal gradient in biodiversity have been controversial for over a century. Using a spatially explicit approach that incorporates not only origination and extinction but immigration, a global analysis of genera and subgenera of marine bivalves over the past 11 million years supports an "out of the tropics"(More)
Geographic range has been regarded as a property of species rather than of individuals and thus as a potential factor in macroevolutionary processes. Species durations in Late Cretaceous mollusks exhibit statistically significant positive relationships with geographic range, and the attainment of a typical frequency distribution of geographic ranges in the(More)
Scale and hierarchy must be incorporated into any conceptual framework for the study of macroevolution, i.e. evolution above the species level. Expansion of temporal and spatial scales reveals evolutionary patterns and processes that are virtually inaccessible to, and unpredictable from, short-term, localized observations. These larger-scale phenomena range(More)
Of the 26 well-preserved orders of benthic marine invertebrates that have originated since the beginning of the Mesozoic, 20 first appear in onshore environments. This distribution differs significantly from that shown by well-preserved genera and families, and by the 16 poorly preserved orders. These discordances suggest that the pattern of preferential(More)
The latitudinal diversity gradient, with maximum taxonomic richness in the tropics, is widely accepted as being pervasive on land, but the existence of this pattern in the sea has been surprisingly controversial. This is partly due to Thorson's influential claim that the normal latitudinal diversity gradient occurs in marine epifauna (taxa living on the(More)
In mid-September 2007, 32 paleontologists gathered at the Smithsonian Institution to spend four days discussing research frontiers in paleoecol-ogy, particularly at the interface with neoecology. They represented expertise throughout the Phanerozoic and in all major groups of fossilizable organisms. This meeting was timely, given the increasing evidence of(More)
Mass extinctions have played many evolutionary roles, involving differential survivorship or selectivity of taxa and traits, the disruption or preservation of evolutionary trends and ecosystem organization, and the promotion of taxonomic and morphological diversifications-often along unexpected trajectories-after the destruction or marginalization of(More)
—The fossil record displays remarkable stasis in many species over long time periods, yet studies of extant populations often reveal rapid phenotypic evolution and genetic differentiation among populations. Recent advances in our understanding of the fossil record and in population genetics and evolutionary ecology point to the complex geographic structure(More)