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Activation of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors in cerebellar granule cells during perforated-patch whole-cell recordings activated an inward current at negative voltages which was followed, after a delay, by the inhibition of an outward potassium current at voltages positive to -20 mV. The activated inward current(More)
HIV superinfection (reinfection) has been reported in several settings, but no study has been designed and powered to rigorously compare its incidence to that of initial infection. Determining whether HIV infection reduces the risk of superinfection is critical to understanding whether an immune response to natural HIV infection is protective. This study(More)
The effects of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), paroxetine, and 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonists on in vivo extracellular 5-HT levels in the guinea-pig frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus were investigated using the technique of microdialysis. The aim of the study was to further investigate the autoreceptor roles of the(More)
Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) possess a standing outward potassium current (IK(SO)) which shares many similarities with current through the two-pore domain potassium channel TASK-1 and which is inhibited following activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The action of muscarine on IK(SO) was unaffected by the M2 receptor antagonist(More)
INTRODUCTION Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern(More)
UNLABELLED Antibodies (Abs) specific for the V3 loop of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope neutralize most tier 1 and many tier 2 viruses and are present in essentially all HIV-infected individuals as well as immunized humans and animals. Vaccine-induced V3 Abs are associated with reduced HIV infection rates in humans and affect the nature of transmitted viruses in(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with(More)
Lentiviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their respective hosts despite a potent type-I interferon (IFN-I) response following transmission. A number of IFN-I-induced host factors that are able to inhibit lentiviral replication in vitro have been identified, and these studies suggest a role for IFN-induced factors as barriers to(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a growing burden in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicines (TMs) remain a primary form of healthcare in many settings. In Tanzania, TMs are frequently used to treat non-communicable diseases, yet little is known about TM practices for non-communicable diseases like diabetes. METHODS Between December 2013 and June 2014, we(More)
IK(SO) is a standing-outward potassium current found in cerebellar granule neurons which is inhibited by the activation of muscarinic M(3) receptors. However the pathway between muscarinic receptor activation and current inhibition is unknown. Using two structurally distinct inhibitors of the activation of MEK1 (mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase(More)
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