David F. A. Lloyd

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BACKGROUND The value of routine skull radiography as a method of predicting intracranial injury is controversial. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of skull radiography by prospectively studying head-injured children admitted to a children's hospital that serves an urban population. METHODS Over a 2-year period, 9269 children attended our accident and(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) recently have been identified as intestinal pacemaker cells. Abnormalities in ICC are increasingly recognized in a number of neonatal disorders such as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, Hirschsprung's disease, and transient intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The aim of this study was to determine the(More)
This study evaluates the role of primary peritoneal drainage (PPD) in the management of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Of 169 patients with definite NEC, 92 (55%) underwent operation: primary laparotomy, 41 patients (45%); and PPD, 51 patients (55%). Seventeen (33%) of the PPD infants had subsequent laparotomy within seven days. Pneumoperitoneum(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Lung hypoplasia, a leading contributor to the lethality of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), has been attributed to compression of the fetal lung by herniated abdominal viscera. Contested findings in experimental CDH suggest that lung malformation may precede diaphragmatic hernia. To address this unresolved question, we studied the(More)
This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of continuous-infusion doxorubicin and cisplatin (CI-DOX/CPPD) for the treatment of children with incompletely resected hepatic cancer. Of the 46 evaluable patients, 32 had hepatoblastoma (70%) and 14 had hepatocellular carcinoma. Ten children had stage II tumors (microscopic residual), 25 were(More)
Urgent nephrectomy was once considered standard therapy for renal venous thrombosis, but recently nonoperative therapy has been advised. To examine this trend more closely, we reviewed 46 cases of renal venous thrombosis seen at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (Pa) over the last 32 years. Earlier, diagnosis was frequently supported by intravenous(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in endothelin 3 (EDN3) and endothelin B receptor (EDNRB) genes cause terminal colonic aganglionosis in mice, and mutations in these genes have also been linked to the terminal aganglionosis seen in human Hirschsprung's disease. However, details of EDN3 expression during embryogenesis are lacking, and consequently the cellular mechanism(More)
 The neurons and glial cells of the enteric nervous system (ENS) are derived from the neural crest. To study the developmental events involved in congenital abnormalities of the ENS, it is essential to identify all neural-crest cells (NCC) in the prenatal gut. The low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75 is currently considered to be a gold-standard marker,(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore whether episodes of endogenous septicemias due to microbial translocation are clinically relevant in neonates and infants who are receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). DESIGN Prospective observational cohort study of 2 years. SETTING Neonates and infants who underwent surgical procedures and required PN because of(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Terminal colonic aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease) results from incomplete rostrocaudal colonisation of the embryonic gut by neural crest cells (NCC). Mutations in the genes encoding endothelin-3 (EDN3) or its receptor (EDNRB) have been shown to result in a similar aganglionosis. This article describes the development of an organ(More)