Learn More
Background Since its initial detection in April 2009, the A/H1N1pdm influenza virus has spread rapidly in humans, with over 5,700 human deaths. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of H1N1pdm and its geographic and temporal diversification.Methods Phylogenetic analysis was conducted upon the concatenated coding regions of whole-genome(More)
Pandemic influenza A viruses that emerge from animal reservoirs are inevitable. Therefore, rapid genomic analysis and creation of vaccines are vital. We developed a multisegment reverse transcription-PCR (M-RTPCR) approach that simultaneously amplifies eight genomic RNA segments, irrespective of virus subtype. M-RTPCR amplicons can be used for(More)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a receptor for SARS-CoV, the novel coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome [Li, W. Moore, M. J., Vasilieva, N., Sui, J., Wong, S. K., Berne, M. A., Somasundaran, M., Sullivan, J. L., Luzuriaga, K., Greenough, T. C., et al. (2003) Nature 426, 450-454]. We have identified a different human cellular(More)
The fact that there have been more than 300 human infections with a novel avian H7N9 virus in China indicates that this emerging strain has pandemic potential. Furthermore, many of the H7N9 viruses circulating in animal reservoirs contain putative mammalian signatures in the HA and PB2 genes that are believed to be important in the adaptation of other avian(More)
We examined the level of antigenic conservation amongst the haemagglutinins (HAs) of H1 swine influenza viruses, recently isolated from a wide geographical area, in haemagglutination inhibition assays against a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We found a high degree of conservation with a dominant variant (52 of 54 isolates) that reacted with all(More)
Spatial variation in the epidemiological patterns of successive waves of pandemic influenza virus in humans has been documented throughout the 20th century but never understood at a molecular level. However, the unprecedented intensity of sampling and whole-genome sequencing of the H1N1/09 pandemic virus now makes such an approach possible. To determine(More)
Triaryl pyrazoline {[5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-thiophen-2-yl-4,5-dihydro-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenyl-methanone} inhibits flavivirus infection in cell culture. The inhibitor was identified through high-throughput screening of a compound library using a luciferase-expressing West Nile (WN) virus infection assay. The compound inhibited an epidemic strain of WN virus(More)
In murine 17 Cl 1 cells persistently infected with murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59), expression of the virus receptor glycoprotein MHVR was markedly reduced (S. G. Sawicki, J. H. Lu, and K. V. Holmes, J. Virol. 69:5535-5543, 1995). Virus isolated from passage 600 of the persistently infected cells made smaller plaques on 17 Cl 1(More)
Aminopeptidase N, or CD13, is a receptor for serologically related coronaviruses of humans, pigs, and cats. A mouse line transgenic for the receptor of human coronavirus-229E (HCoV-229E) was created using human APN (hAPN) cDNA driven by a hAPN promoter. hAPN-transgenic mice expressed hAPN mRNA in the kidney, small intestine, liver, and lung. hAPN protein(More)
During the 2015-16 influenza season (October 4, 2015-May 21, 2016) in the United States, influenza activity* was lower and peaked later compared with the previous three seasons (2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15). Activity remained low from October 2015 until late December 2015 and peaked in mid-March 2016. During the most recent 18 influenza seasons (including(More)