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We conducted a clinical trial to assess adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric Ag receptor (CAR). Our clinical protocol consisted of chemotherapy followed by an infusion of anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells and a course of IL-2. Six of the 8 patients treated on our protocol obtained remissions of their advanced,(More)
PURPOSE Patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have profound immune defects and limited treatment options. Given the dramatic activity of lenalidomide in other B-cell malignancies and its pleotropic immunomodulatory effects, we conducted a phase II trial of this agent in CLL. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with relapsed or(More)
PURPOSE Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug with multiple effects on the immune system and tumor cell microenvironment leading to inhibition of malignant cell growth. Based on encouraging reports of lenalidomide in relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we investigated the first-line use of single-agent lenalidomide in CLL. (More)
Weak immunogenicity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells may contribute to disease progression and inhibit effective immunotherapy. Accordingly, agents that enhance the immunogenicity of CLL cells may be useful in immunotherapeutic approaches to this disease. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major regulators of innate immunity and initiation of(More)
Advances in our understanding of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have led to the identification of several agonists that are suitable for clinical development. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) may be especially amenable to TLR agonists because it is an immunologically susceptible tumor with strong expression of several TLRs, particularly TLR-7 and TLR-9.(More)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess an immune plasticity manifested by either an immunosuppressive or, when activated with IFN-gamma, an APC phenotype. Herein, TLR expression by MSC and their immune regulatory role were investigated. We observed that human MSC and macrophages expressed TLR3 and TLR4 at comparable levels and(More)
Molecular remission in the autograft and bone marrow after transplant are predictive of durable clinical remission in relapsed follicular lymphoma. Thus, a simple reliable method to quantify minimal residual disease (MRD) would improve prognostication in these patients. Fluorescent hybridization probes have been used in real-time quantitative polymerase(More)
The miR-17-92 cluster and its 6 encoded miRNAs are frequently amplified and aberrantly expressed in various malignancies. This study demonstrates that retroviral-mediated miR-17-92 overexpression promotes expansion of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in mice. Cell lines derived from these miR-17-92-overexpressing mice are capable of myeloid and(More)
The type I interferons (IFNs) normally suppress tumor growth by phosphorylating and activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), but also briefly activate STAT3, which promotes cell growth. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, the duration of IFN-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation was found to exhibit significant(More)
PURPOSE Tumor-reactive T cells were measured in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) because vaccines that increase the activity of these cells might lead to better disease control. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Proliferation and ELISPOT assays (for T cells producing IFN-gamma after stimulation by CD40-activated CLL cells) were used to determine the(More)