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Research has found an advantage for an external focus of attention in motor control and learning; instructing subjects to focus on the effects of their actions, rather than on body movements, can improve performance during training and retention testing. Previous research has mostly concentrated on movement outcomes, not on the quality of the movement(More)
Transformations of the underlying movement control of rapid sequential (reversal) responses were examined as the movement amplitude (Experiment 1) and moment of inertia (Experiment 2) were altered, with constant movement time. Increases in amplitude and inertia were both met by sharply increased joint torques with a constant temporal structure, suggesting(More)
Research on the focus of attention has begun exploring the physiological changes that underlie the difference between internal and external foci of attention. However, previous electromyography studies have used dynamic tasks, making it difficult to interpret electrophysiological data. The authors analyzed how the focus of attention affects a subject's(More)
The role of blocked and random variable practice in the development of a spatial error detection mechanism in 2 experiments was investigated in the present study. Twenty-four (Experiment 1) and 40 (Experiment 2) college-aged participants made either 20, 40, 60 degrees quick lever reversal movements in the sagittal plane. During acquisition in both(More)
When subjects make rapid bimanual aiming movements over different distances, spatial assimilations are shown; the shorter distance limb overshoots when paired with a longer distance limb. Recent research has also shown spatial assimilations to be greater in the nonpreferred left limb of right-handed subjects, but it is not known whether the increased(More)
The effect of "bandwidth" knowledge of results (KR), given only if the subject's response is outside of a certain movement-time bandwidth, on learning and performance of a rapid elbow-flexion movement was examined. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups, a 5% bandwidth group (BW5), a 10% bandwidth group (BW10), or a control group(More)
Modifications to the underlying motor control of rapid reversal movements (flexion-extension of the elbow) to accommodate experimentally induced changes in the movement time (MT) with constant movement amplitude were examined in man. MT was altered between conditions via instructions and feedback, resulting in seven distinct MT levels (from 100 to 250 ms to(More)
This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between(More)
Although the effects of attention on movement execution are well documented behaviorally, much less research has been done on the neurophysiological changes that underlie attentional focus effects. This study presents two experiments exploring effects of attention during an isometric plantar-flexion task using surface electromyography (sEMG). Participants'(More)
Many research studies have shown the advantage of an external focus of attention (FOA) relative to an internal focus for motor learning and performance when the focus is explicitly instructed. The current experiments varied the FOA by asking the participants to judge either joint angles (internal probes) or spatial accuracy (external probes) following dart(More)