David E. James

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Antibodies specific for the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT 4) were used to immunolocalize this protein in brown adipose tissue from basal- and insulin-treated rats. Cryosections of fixed tissue were incubated with antibodies, which were subsequently labeled with Protein A/gold and examined by EM. Antibodies against albumin and cathepsin D(More)
In muscle and fat cells, insulin stimulates the delivery of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular location to the cell surface, where it facilitates the reduction of plasma glucose levels. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate this translocation event involves integrating our knowledge of two fundamental processes--the signal(More)
Berberine has been shown to have antidiabetic properties, although its mode of action is not known. Here, we have investigated the metabolic effects of berberine in two animal models of insulin resistance and in insulin-responsive cell lines. Berberine reduced body weight and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance without altering food intake(More)
Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation is central to glucose homeostasis. Functional assays to distinguish individual steps in the GLUT4 translocation process are lacking, thus limiting progress toward elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we have developed a robust method, which relies on dynamic tracking of single GLUT4 storage vesicles(More)
Insulin stimulates the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. In the present study we have conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of affinity-purified GLUT4 vesicles from 3T3-L1 adipocytes to discover potential regulators of GLUT4 trafficking. In addition to previously identified components(More)
A major mechanism by which insulin stimulates glucose transport in muscle and fat is the translocation of glucose transporters from an intracellular membrane pool to the cell surface. The existence of a distinct insulin-regulatable glucose transporter was suggested by the poor cross-reactivity between antibodies specific for either the HepG2 or rat brain(More)
Facilitative glucose transporters exhibit variable hexose affinity and tissue-specific expression. These characteristics contribute to specialized metabolic properties of cells. Here we describe the characterization of a novel glucose transporter-like molecule, GLUT-12. GLUT-12 was identified in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by homology to the(More)
The first differentiative event in mammalian development is segregation of the inner cell mass and trophectoderm (TE) lineages. The epithelial TE cells pump fluid into the spherical blastocyst to form the blastocyst cavity. This activity is fuelled by glucose supplied through facilitative glucose transporters. However, the reported kinetic characteristics(More)
Munc-18, also known as n-Sec1 or rbSec1, is a syntaxin-binding protein thought to play a role in regulating synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Although a gene family of syntaxins has been identified, only a limited subset bind to Munc-18. This implicates the existence of other mammalian Munc-18 homologues that may be involved in a range of vesicle transport(More)
The insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. A novel assay was used to study GLUT4 trafficking in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes and adipocytes. Whereas insulin stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in both cell types, in nonstimulated fibroblasts GLUT4 readily cycled between endosomes(More)