Learn More
Estimates of average default probabilities for borrowers assigned to each of a ®nancial institution's internal credit risk rating grades are crucial inputs to portfolio credit risk models. Such models are increasingly used in setting ®nancial institution capital structure, in internal control and compensation systems, in asset-backed security design, and(More)
Genetic susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is indicated by a preponderance of female subjects and strong associations with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DRB1*0301 and DRB1*0401. The gene encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) on chromosome 2q33 may also influence autoimmunity. To determine the frequency and significance of the exon 1(More)
In addition to the HLA locus, six genetic risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have been identified in recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To identify additional loci, we carried out a GWAS using 1,840 cases from the UK PBC Consortium and 5,163 UK population controls as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). We(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Patient surveys suggest that fatigue is a common problem in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The actual extent of the problems caused by fatigue in PBC has yet to be determined as previous studies addressing this question have tended to use selected patient subgroups and subjective or non-quantitative fatigue assessment tools. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Study of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and the factors responsible for its impairment in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has, to date, been limited. There is increasing need for a HRQOL questionnaire which is specific to PBC. The aim of this study was to develop, validate, and evaluate a patient based PBC specific HRQOL measure.(More)
Working papers of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. The views stated herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland or of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ABSTRACT Risk-based capital (RBC) is an(More)
The effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on plasma and urinary adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels were studied in normal subjects. Under basal conditions normal adults have plasma concentrations of cyclic AMP ranging from 10 to 25 nmoles/liter and excrete from 1.5 to 5 mumoles of cyclic AMP per g of urinary creatinine. About one-half to(More)
BACKGROUND Primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis) can progress to cirrhosis and death despite ursodiol therapy. Alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels correlate with the risk of liver transplantation or death. Obeticholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, has shown potential benefit in patients with this disease. (More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Development of primary biliary cirrhosis in the close relatives of patients with the disease has been reported in several series, suggesting a genetic component to disease susceptibility. In this study we set out to calculate, as accurately as possible, the prevalence of familial primary biliary cirrhosis in a geographically-based(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Fatigue is the commonest symptom of the chronic liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is increasingly being diagnosed earlier in its natural history at a stage when concerns about progression to liver failure may be less prominent than current symptoms. The importance of symptomatic treatment is therefore increasingly being(More)