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Archaeoglobus fulgidus is the first sulphur-metabolizing organism to have its genome sequence determined. Its genome of 2,178,400 base pairs contains 2,436 open reading frames (ORFs). The information processing systems and the biosynthetic pathways for essential components (nucleotides, amino acids and cofactors) have extensive correlation with their(More)
Aquifex aeolicus was one of the earliest diverging, and is one of the most thermophilic, bacteria known. It can grow on hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and mineral salts. The complex metabolic machinery needed for A. aeolicus to function as a chemolithoautotroph (an organism which uses an inorganic carbon source for biosynthesis and an inorganic chemical(More)
The candidate division Korarchaeota comprises a group of uncultivated microorganisms that, by their small subunit rRNA phylogeny, may have diverged early from the major archaeal phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Here, we report the initial characterization of a member of the Korarchaeota with the proposed name, "Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum,"(More)
Methanogenesis, the biological production of methane, plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle and contributes significantly to global warming. The majority of methane in nature is derived from acetate. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an acetate-utilizing methanogen, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. Methanosarcineae are the most(More)
The hyperthermophile Nanoarchaeum equitans is an obligate symbiont growing in coculture with the crenarchaeon Ignicoccus. Ribosomal protein and rRNA-based phylogenies place its branching point early in the archaeal lineage, representing the new archaeal kingdom Nanoarchaeota. The N. equitans genome (490,885 base pairs) encodes the machinery for information(More)
Methanogenesis, the anaerobic production of methane from CO2 or simple carbon compounds, requires seven organic coenzymes. This review describes pathways for the biosynthesis of methanofuran, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydromethanopterin, coenzyme F420, coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoyl-L-threonine phosphate). Spectroscopic(More)
A single cultured marine organism, Nanoarchaeum equitans, represents the Nanoarchaeota branch of symbiotic Archaea, with a highly reduced genome and unusual features such as multiple split genes. The first terrestrial hyperthermophilic member of the Nanoarchaeota was collected from Obsidian Pool, a thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park, separated by(More)
Cysteinyl-tRNA (Cys-tRNA) is essential for protein synthesis. In most organisms the enzyme responsible for the formation of Cys-tRNA is cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS). The only known exceptions are the euryarchaea Methanococcus jannaschii and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, which do not encode a CysRS. Deviating from the accepted concept of one(More)
The genome sequence of the genetically tractable, mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis contains 1,722 protein-coding genes in a single circular chromosome of 1,661,137 bp. Of the protein-coding genes (open reading frames [ORFs]), 44% were assigned a function, 48% were conserved but had unknown or uncertain functions, and 7.5%(More)