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Aquifex aeolicus was one of the earliest diverging, and is one of the most thermophilic, bacteria known. It can grow on hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and mineral salts. The complex metabolic machinery needed for A. aeolicus to function as a chemolithoautotroph (an organism which uses an inorganic carbon source for biosynthesis and an inorganic chemical(More)
Archaeoglobus fulgidus is the first sulphur-metabolizing organism to have its genome sequence determined. Its genome of 2,178,400 base pairs contains 2,436 open reading frames (ORFs). The information processing systems and the biosynthetic pathways for essential components (nucleotides, amino acids and cofactors) have extensive correlation with their(More)
Methanogenesis, the biological production of methane, plays a pivotal role in the global carbon cycle and contributes significantly to global warming. The majority of methane in nature is derived from acetate. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an acetate-utilizing methanogen, Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A. Methanosarcineae are the most(More)
A single cultured marine organism, Nanoarchaeum equitans, represents the Nanoarchaeota branch of symbiotic Archaea, with a highly reduced genome and unusual features such as multiple split genes. The first terrestrial hyperthermophilic member of the Nanoarchaeota was collected from Obsidian Pool, a thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park, separated by(More)
BACKGROUND The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently degrades crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the thymidine kinase gene from each of three mutant strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 and from the parental strain, SC16, has been determined. The mutants were known to express thymidine kinase enzymes with distinct substrate binding properties. Consideration of the lesions in the genes responsible for(More)
Xylanases catalyze the hydrolysis of plant hemicellulose xylan into oligosaccharides by cleaving the main-chain glycosidic linkages connecting xylose subunits. To study ligand binding and to understand how the pH constrains the activity of the enzyme, variants of the Trichoderma reesei xylanase were designed to either abolish its activity (E177Q) or to(More)
Post-transcriptional modifications in archaeal RNA are known to be phylogenetically distinct but relatively little is known of tRNA from the Methanococci, a lineage of methanogenic marine euryarchaea that grow over an unusually broad temperature range. Transfer RNAs from Methanococcus vannielii, Methanococcus maripaludis, the thermophile Methanococcus(More)
Pentamers of the L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV type 11) were purified after expression in E. coli and analyzed for the kinetics of in vitro capsid self-assembly using multi-angle light scattering (MALS). Pentamers self-assembled into capsid-like structures at a rate that was a function of protein concentration. The kinetics of capsid(More)
Considering that 25% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost (ground that has been continuously frozen for at least 2 years), our understanding of the diversity of microbial life in this extreme habitat is surprisingly limited. Taking into account the total mass of perennially frozen sediment (up to several hundred meters deep), permafrost(More)