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Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations (no-contact(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS In the enteric nervous system, neurotransmitters initiate changes in calcium (Ca(2+) responses) in glia, but it is not clear how this process affects intestinal function. We investigated whether Ca(2+)-mediated responses in enteric glia are required to maintain gastrointestinal function. METHODS We used in situ Ca(2+) imaging to monitor(More)
The 2007 Consensus Statement for Standard of Care in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) notes that patients suffer from gastroesophageal reflux, constipation and delayed gastric emptying. We used two mouse models of SMA to determine whether functional GI complications are a direct consequence of or are secondary to survival motor neuron (Smn) deficiency. Our(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gastrointestinal motility is regulated by enteric neural circuitry that includes enteric neurons and glia. Enteric glia monitor synaptic activity and exhibit responses to neurotransmitters that are encoded by intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling. What role evoked glial responses play in the neural regulation of gut motility is unknown.(More)
Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, in press) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations(More)
Reflex behaviors of the intestine are controlled by the enteric nervous system (ENS). The ENS is an integrative network of neurons and glia in two ganglionated plexuses housed in the gut wall. Enteric neurons and enteric glia are the only cell types within the enteric ganglia. The activity of enteric neurons and glia is responsible for coordinating(More)
Gut inflammation contributes to the development of gut motility disorders in part by disrupting the function and survival of enteric neurons through mechanisms that involve oxidative stress. How enteric neurons regulate oxidative stress is still poorly understood. Importantly, how neuron autonomous antioxidant mechanisms contribute to the susceptibility of(More)
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