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Recent studies suggest that cancer can arise from a cancer stem cell (CSC), a tumor-initiating cell that has properties similar to those of stem cells. CSCs have been identified in several malignancies, including those of blood, brain, and breast. Here, we test whether stem cell-like populations exist in human melanomas. In approximately 20% of the(More)
Stem cells are vital for the homeostasis of self-renewing tissues such as the hair follicle. Epithelial stem cells have been implicated in tumorigenesis and wound healing, and their manipulation may have wide ranging applications including gene therapy and tissue transplantation. Rodent hair follicle stem cells have been localized to an area of the follicle(More)
The nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor was characterized by using a new series of anti-receptor monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). These MAbs (i) showed significantly greater reactivity with a melanoma cell line expressing higher levels of NGF receptor, (ii) inhibited the binding of 125I-labeled NGF to its receptor, and (iii) immunoprecipitated both(More)
Since tumor progression is dependent on the ability of malignant cells to interact with the extracellular matrix, molecules on the cell surface which mediate cell-substratum interactions are likely to be important regulators of tumor invasion and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of one such group of cell adhesion(More)
We used the lesional steps in tumor progression and multivariable logistic regression to develop a prognostic model for primary, clinical stage I cutaneous melanoma. This model is 89% accurate in predicting survival. Using histologic criteria, we assigned melanomas to tumor progression steps by ascertaining their particular growth phase. These phases were(More)
The biological and molecular characteristics of cell lines from metastatic melanomas have been extensively studied but less is known about cells from the biologically earliest stage of primary melanoma. The overall success rate of establishing permanent cell lines from such lesions is only 10% of that for biologically late primary or metastatic melanomas,(More)
Human pigmentation, including eye color, has been associated with skin cancer risk. The P gene is the human homologue to the mouse pink-eye dilution locus and is responsible for oculocutaneous albinism type 2 and other phenotypes that confer eye hypopigmentation. The P gene is located on chromosome 15q11.2-q12, which is also the location of a putative eye(More)
Dysplastic nevi are distinctive cutaneous nevomelanocytic lesions that can be recognized clinically and histologically. They were first described as markers of risk for melanoma in members of hereditary melanoma-prone kindreds. Subsequently, they have been discovered in a significant fraction of patients with sporadic melanoma, and in apparently normal(More)
We report a genome-wide association study of melanoma conducted by the GenoMEL consortium based on 317K tagging SNPs for 1,650 selected cases and 4,336 controls, with replication in an additional two cohorts (1,149 selected cases and 964 controls from GenoMEL, and a population-based case-control study in Leeds of 1,163 cases and 903 controls). The(More)
Dysregulated activation of Ras or its downstream effectors such as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and ERK has been shown to play a critical role in tumorigenesis of many cancer types. However, in melanoma, activating mutations in Ras are rarely observed and are limited to N-Ras in UV-exposed cells. In this study, we identify constitutively(More)