David E. Comings

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We report that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene (PTPN22) encoding the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), a suppressor of T-cell activation, is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The variants encoded by the two alleles, 1858C and 1858T, differ in a crucial amino acid residue involved in association of LYP with the(More)
The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms. The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with a dopamine D2 receptor. "The reward cascade" involves the(More)
The dopaminergic and opioidergic reward pathways of the brain are critical for survival since they provide the pleasure drives for eating, love and reproduction; these are called 'natural rewards' and involve the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and frontal lobes. However, the same release of dopamine and production of sensations of pleasure can(More)
The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been profoundly implicated in reward mechanisms in the brain. Dysfunction of the D2 dopamine receptors leads to aberrant substance seeking behaviour (alcohol, drug, tobacco, and food) and other related behaviours (pathological gambling, Tourette's syndrome, and attention deficit(More)
OBJECTIVE --The A1 allele of the Taq I polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene has been earlier reported to occur in 69% of alcoholics, compared with 20% of controls. Other research has reported no significant difference in the prevalence of the A1 allele in alcoholics vs controls and no evidence that the DRD2 gene was linked to alcoholism. We(More)
Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and(More)
Prior studies have reported an association between the presence of the 7 repeat allele of the 48 bp repeat polymorphism of the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and novelty seeking behaviors, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome (TS), pathological gambling, and substance abuse. However, other(More)
Fine structure studies of Oncopeltus fasciatus, an hemipteran with diffuse kinetochores, shows the presence of a kinetochore plate extending for up to 75% of the length of the chromosomes during mitosis. During meiosis, microtubules entered all along the body of the chromosomes and the kinetochore plate was completely missing. It is suggested that in(More)
SIR – Heritability estimates for intelligence quotient (IQ) range from 0.50 to 0.80. This makes IQ a suitable target for attempts to identify the specific genes involved. This first such gene to be identified was by Chorney et al. They reported an association between the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene and IQ. Cholinergic pathways have(More)