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Over 225,000 independent Agrobacterium transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion events in the genome of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been created that represent near saturation of the gene space. The precise locations were determined for more than 88,000 T-DNA insertions, which resulted in the identification of mutations in more than 21,700 of the(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) plays a critical role in connective tissue remodeling by fibroblasts during development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. We investigated the molecular pathways in the transmission of TGFbeta signals that lead to features of connective tissue remodeling, namely formation of an alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)(More)
CCN2 is induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) in fibroblasts and is overexpressed in connective tissue disease. CCN2 has been proposed to be a downstream mediator of TGFbeta action in fibroblasts; however, the role of CCN2 in regulating this process unclear. By using embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ccn2-/- mice, we showed that CCN2 is(More)
OBJECTIVE Enhanced adhesive signaling, including activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a hallmark of fibroblasts from lung fibrosis patients, and FAK has therefore been hypothesized to be a key mediator of this disease. This study was undertaken to characterize the contribution of FAK to the development of pulmonary fibrosis both in vivo and in(More)
OBJECTIVE Fibrosis is believed to occur through normal tissue remodeling failing to terminate. Tissue repair intimately involves the ability of fibroblasts to contract extracellular matrix (ECM), and enhanced ECM contraction is a hallmark of fibrotic cells in various conditions, including scleroderma. Some fibrogenic transcriptional responses to(More)
CCN2 is expressed by mesenchymal cells undergoing active tissue remodeling, and is characteristically overexpressed in connective tissue pathologies such as fibrosis and cancer. However, the physiological roles and mechanism of action of CCN2 are largely unknown. Here, we probe the contribution of CCN2 to the biology of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the contribution of heparan sulfate proteoglycan and Ras/MEK/ERK to the overexpression of profibrotic proteins and the enhanced contractile ability of dermal fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). METHODS The effects of the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126, the heparan sulfate side chain formation inhibitor(More)
OBJECTIVES Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles of blood leukocytes has many potential clinical and research applications. DESIGN AND METHODS We used the PAXgene Blood RNA System to prepare RNA from the whole blood of normal volunteers using two incubation times followed by gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix HU133A GeneChip. (More)
Scarring, which occurs in essentially all adult tissue, is characterized by the excessive production and remodeling of extracellular matrix by α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts located within connective tissue. Excessive scarring can cause organ failure and death. Oral gingivae do not scar. Compared to dermal fibroblasts, gingival(More)
We have investigated the effects of chronically elevated glucose concentrations on the pancreatic alpha-cell line alphaTC1-6. We show that basal glucagon secretion and proglucagon gene expression were increased in response to high glucose levels. The extent of acute stimulated secretion of glucagon was also increased in response to high glucose, as was the(More)