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Triggering shortcuts or actions on a mobile device often requires a long sequence of key presses. Because the functions of buttons are highly dependent on the current application's context, users are required to look at the display during interaction, even in many mobile situations when eyes-free interactions may be preferable. We present Virtual Shelves, a(More)
Visually demanding interfaces on a mobile phone can diminish the user experience by monopolizing the user's attention when they are focusing on another task and impede accessibility for visually impaired users. Because mobile devices are often located in pockets when users are mobile, explicit foot movements can be defined as eyes-and-hands-free input(More)
The number of computing devices that people use is growing. To gain a better understanding of why and how people use multiple devices, we interviewed 27 people from academia and industry. From these interviews we distill four primary findings. First, associating a user's activities with a particular device is problematic for multiple device users because(More)
P ervasive computing's mixed success as a paradigm in everyday life makes evident the need for evaluation methods that provide insights into likely usage patterns. 1 Focused research questions tend to be explored in lab experiments, 2 while larger projects often involve implementation and field evaluation of a completely realized concept. It's in the(More)
Accessing the advanced functions of a mobile phone is not a trivial task for users with visual impairments. They rely on screen readers and voice commands to discover and execute functions. In mobile situations, however, screen readers are not ideal because users may depend on their hearing for safety, and voice commands are difficult for a system to(More)
The effectiveness of interaction with mobile devices can be impacted by handedness; however, support for handedness in the interface is rarely provided. The goal of this article is to demonstrate that handedness is a significant interface consideration that should not be overlooked. Four studies were conducted to explore left-handed user interaction with(More)
Previous studies have shown that novices do not tend to extract or use data-flow information during program comprehension. However, for impact analysis and similar tasks, data-flow information is necessary and highly relevant. Visual data-flow programming languages, such as Prograph/CPX, have been commercially successful, suggesting that they provide(More)
Rich text tasks are increasingly common on mobile devices, requiring the user to interleave typing and selection to produce the text and formatting she desires. However, mobile devices are a rich input space where input does not need to be limited to a keyboard and touch. In this paper, we present two complementary studies evaluating four different input(More)
In this paper, we present a field study comparing software-based navigation techniques (scrollbars, tap-and-drag, and touch-n-go) on mobile devices. In particular, we were interested in exploring the efficiency and user preference of these navigation techniques for different levels of mobility (sitting, walking, and standing) in a naturalistic environment.(More)
Many existing localization systems generate location predictions , but fail to report how accurate the predictions are. This paper explores the effect of revealing the error of location predictions to the end-user in a location finding field study. We report findings obtained under four different error visualization conditions and show significant benefit(More)