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We present Trickle, an algorithm for propagating and maintaining code updates in wireless sensor networks. Borrowing techniques from the epidemic/gossip, scalable multicast, and wireless broadcast literature, Trickle uses a “polite gossip” policy, where motes periodically broadcast a code summary to local neighbors but stay quiet if they have recently heard(More)
makes it possible to instrument the world with increasing fidelity. To realize this opportunity, information technology must address a new collection of challenges. The individual devices in a wireless sensor network (WSN) are inherently resource constrained: They have limited processing speed, storage capacity, and communication bandwidth. These devices(More)
A new class of networked systems is emerging that involve very large numbers of small, low-power, wireless devices. We present findings from a large scale empirical study involving over 150 such nodes operated at various transmission power settings. The instrumentation in our experiments permits us to separate effects at the various layers of the protocol(More)
Real-time wireless link reliability estimation is a fundamental building block for self-organization of multihop sensor networks. Observed connectivity at low-power is more chaotic and unpredictable than in wireless LANs, and available resources are severely constrained. We seek estimators that react quickly to large changes, yet are stable, have a small(More)
High-performance network hardware is advancing, with multi-gigabit link bandwidths and sub-microsec-<lb>ond switch latencies. Network-interface hardware also continues to evolve, although the design space re-<lb>mains large and diverse. One critical abstraction, a simple, portable, and general-purpose communications<lb>interface, is required to make(More)
Responding to the increasing interest to connect wireless sensor networks (WSN) to the Internet, the IETF has proposed standards that enable IPv6-based sensor networks. Specifically, the IETF 6LoWPAN and RoLL working groups developed standards for encapsulating IPv6 datagrams in 802.15.4 frames, neighbor discovery, and routing that allow sensor networks to(More)
We propose application specific virtual machines as a method to safely and efficiently program sensor networks. Although sensor networks encompass a wide range of application domains, any given network supports a single one. A VM tailored to a particular deployment can provide retasking flexibility within its application class while keeping programs(More)
Existing routing protocols for sensor networks either exclusively focus on collection-based traffic, or optimize for point-to-point traffic in a homogeneous network. As these networks become more general, a mix of these workloads in a heterogeneous setting is expected, while still abiding by the resource constraints of low-power and lossy networks (L2Ns).(More)
This paper proposes a practical and scalable technique for point-to-point routing in wireless sensornets. This method, called Beacon Vector Routing (BVR), assigns coordinates to nodes based on the vector of distances (hop count) to a small set of beacons, and then defines a distance metric on these coordinates. Packets are routed greedily, being forwarded(More)