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Chyluria denotes the urinary excretion of chyle, which is a lymphatic fluid rich in chylomicrons. Chyle flows from the intestinal lacteals to the left subclavian vein through the thoracic duct. When an abnormal connection between these structures and the urinary tract develops, chyluria appears. The syndrome is often associated with a nephrotic-range(More)
OBJECTIVE To outline the role of a new drug, tolvaptan, in treating severe and chronic hyponatraemia. Tolvaptan decreases aquaporin expression in renal collecting ducts, by inhibiting antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-V2 receptors, to promote free water clearance. Given its mechanism of action, this drug seems the ideal treatment for the syndrome of inappropriate(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a family of antigen presenting cells that play a paramount role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity. In murine models several subtypes of DCs have been identified, including classical DCs, monocyte-derived DCs, and plasmacytoid DCs. Quiescent, immature DCs and some subtypes of plasmacytoid cells favor the expression of(More)
Arterial hypertension is frequently observed in renal transplant recipients. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial in most cases. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) can increase peripheral vascular resistance by inducing arteriolar vasoconstriction and can cause extracellular fluid expansion by reducing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), activating the(More)
Hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mEq/L, represents the most frequent electrolyte disorder in older hospitalized patients. Early recognition of hyponatremia is mandatory, since it represents an independent risk factor that increases hospital mortality by 40 %. Delayed correction of hyponatremia may worsen brain edema, resulting in(More)
The role of metformin in the development of lactic acidosis (LA) in the setting of acute renal failure (ARF) is debated. Moreover, recent experiments suggested that metformin can also be nephrotoxic, but little clinical data exist about this topic. We sought to investigate these possible associations in a large cohort of patients with diabetes who developed(More)
BACKGROUND In a third of patients presenting with rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure (ARF), a biphasic plasma calcium profile may occur. METHODS We report a case of rhabdomyolysis-induced ARF presenting hypocalcemia during oliguria, followed by a severe hypercalcemia in the polyuric phase. A hypocalcemia-induced acute increase of plasma(More)
The term acute heart failure (AHF) refers to a clinical syndrome with typical symptoms and signs, in which a structural or functional heart abnormality leads to defective oxygen delivery. The term cardiorenal syndrome has been proposed to outline the strict interplay between cardiac and renal function. In the setting of acute cardiac decompensation, acute(More)
Although prognosis of lupus nephritis has improved over time, a substantial amount of lupus patients still reach end-stage renal disease and require dialysis. Treatment of these patients can be challenging, since the disease poses a number of problems that can portend a poor prognosis, such as infections, lupus reactivations, vascular access thrombosis and(More)
McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare disorder in which a colorectal tumor (usually a villous adenoma) determines secretory mucous diarrhea, which in turn leads to prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Even though the outcome is usually favorable with complete recovery after surgery, the diagnosis is often delayed,(More)