David Crowell

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This paper introduces architectural and interaction patterns for integrating crowdsourced human contributions directly into user interfaces. We focus on writing and editing, complex endeavors that span many levels of conceptual and pragmatic activity. Authoring tools offer help with pragmatics, but for higher-level help, writers commonly turn to other(More)
Event-related brain potentials generated in an auditory oddball paradigm were recorded in term and preterm infants. The amplitudes of these brain potentials were significantly larger when generated by a rare improbable stimulus compared to a common frequently presented stimulus. While the magnitude of this novelty detection effect depended on the(More)
An apnea score (AS) was developed as a potential screening tool for sleep apnea. This was based on self-report questionnaire responses of 76 sleep disorder center patients and 20 sleep survey volunteers. Twenty volunteers and 23 patients (group I) comprised the initial AS development group. Their questionnaire responses were compared to polysomnographic(More)
CONTEXT Home monitors designed to identify cardiorespiratory events are frequently used in infants at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), but the efficacy of such devices for this use is unproven. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that preterm infants, siblings of infants who died of SIDS, and infants who have experienced an idiopathic,(More)
There are numerous reports of cardiorespiratory patterns in infants on home monitors, but no data to determine whether "experts" agree on the description of these patterns. Therefore, we evaluated agreement among four experienced investigators and five trained technicians who assessed independently the same sample of physiologic waveforms recorded from(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To examine (1) sleep architecture of infants at varied risk for sudden infant death syndrome, (2) delays or advances in preterm infants at term postmenstrual age, (3) whether ventilatory support and gestational age alter sleep, (4) whether steroids alter sleep, (5) confounding influences of sex, small for gestational age, and maternal(More)
Infant polysomnography (IPSG) is an increasingly important procedure for studying infants with sleep and breathing disorders. Since analyses of these IPSG data are subjective, an equally important issue is the reliability or strength of agreement among scorers (especially among experienced clinicians) of sleep parameters (SP) and sleep states (SS). One(More)
Infant arousal scoring based on the Atlas Task Force definition of transient EEG arousal was evaluated to determine (1). whether transient arousals can be identified and assessed reliably in infants and (2). whether arousal and no-arousal epochs scored previously by trained raters can be validated reliably by independent sleep experts. Phase I for inter-(More)
This paper introduces architectural and interaction patterns for integrating crowdsourced human contributions directly into user interfaces. We focus on writing and editing, complex endeavors that span many levels of conceptual and pragmatic activity. Authoring tools offer help with pragmatics, but for higher-level help, writers commonly turn to other(More)