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This paper introduces architectural and interaction patterns for integrating crowdsourced human contributions directly into user interfaces. We focus on writing and editing, complex endeavors that span many levels of conceptual and pragmatic activity. Authoring tools offer help with pragmatics, but for higher-level help, writers commonly turn to other(More)
In this study we investigated developmental changes in the auditory P3 latency from childhood to adolescence. Event-related potentials evoked by improbable auditory stimuli were recorded from 35 normal children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. Regression analyses showed significant age trends in the auditory P3 latency. Latencies decreased at a rapid(More)
Event-related brain potentials generated in an auditory oddball paradigm were recorded in term and preterm infants. The amplitudes of these brain potentials were significantly larger when generated by a rare improbable stimulus compared to a common frequently presented stimulus. While the magnitude of this novelty detection effect depended on the(More)
Infant arousal scoring based on the Atlas Task Force definition of transient EEG arousal was evaluated to determine (1). whether transient arousals can be identified and assessed reliably in infants and (2). whether arousal and no-arousal epochs scored previously by trained raters can be validated reliably by independent sleep experts. Phase I for inter-(More)
Infant polysomnography (IPSG) is an increasingly important procedure for studying infants with sleep and breathing disorders. Since analyses of these IPSG data are subjective, an equally important issue is the reliability or strength of agreement among scorers (especially among experienced clinicians) of sleep parameters (SP) and sleep states (SS). One(More)
Ontogeny of arousal data constitute a vital supplement to the sparse literature on spontaneous neuronal activity. These data demonstrate that measurable infant spontaneous arousals (SAs) with an inherent oscillatory entrainment occur six times more in active sleep than in quiet sleep of the same duration and are identifiable as a human neurobiologic(More)
Auditory responsivity in term small for gestational age (SGA) compared to term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) human newborns reflects functional differences which may be attributable to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Between-group comparisons of percent of responses of averaged late component auditory evoked events (AEEs) to pure tone(More)
Sleep monitoring at 3 months post term of clinically normal term infants, pre-term infants with no demonstrable pathologic clinical signs, and pre-term and term infants with a history of metabolic disorders show that these infants have EEG sleep stages resembling those seen in adults, as well as the adult pattern of sleep stage organization. The presence of(More)