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Countergradient variation is a geographical pattern of genotypes (with respect to environments) in which genetic influences on a trait oppose environmental influences, thereby minimizing phenotypic change along the gradient. Phenotypic similarity across changing environments ought to be of intense interest because it belies considerable genotypic change.(More)
M any of the world's fish populations are overexploited, and the ecosystems that sustain them are degraded (1). Unintended consequences of fishing, including habitat destruction, incidental mortality of nontarget species, evolutionary shifts in population demographics, and changes in the function and structure of ecosystems, are being increasingly(More)
Patterns of phenotypic change across environmental gradients (e.g., latitude, altitude) have long captivated the interest of evolutionary ecologists. The pattern and magnitude of phenotypic change is determined by the covariance between genetic and environmental influences across a gradient. Cogradient variation (CoGV) occurs when covariance is positive:(More)
The potential of fishing mortality to cause rapid evolutionary changes in life history has received relatively little attention. By focusing only on ecological responses, standard fisheries theory and practice implicitly assume either that genetic influences on life history in the wild are negligible or that natural selection and adaptation is a slow(More)
Sex determination in an atherinid fish, the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia), is under the control of both genotype and temperature during a specific period of larval development. The sex ratios of the progeny of different females are variable and differ in their responsiveness to temperature. This demonstrates that sex ratio in fishes that normally(More)
Two general mechanisms of sex determination have been identified among gonochoristic vertebrates: environmental sex determination where offspring become male or female in response to an environmental factor(s) during development (for example, some fishes and reptiles); and genetic sex determination where sex is determined by genotype at conception (as in(More)
It was recently reported that the real-time flat panel detector-based cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) breast imaging can help improve the detectability of small breast tumors with an X-ray dose comparable to that of the conventional mammography. In this paper, an efficient denoising algorithm is proposed to further reduce the X-ray exposure level(More)
Preliminary evaluation of recently developed large-area flat panel detectors (FPDs) indicates that FPDs have some potential advantages: compactness, absence of geometric distortion and veiling glare with the benefits of high resolution, high detective quantum efficiency (DQE), high frame rate and high dynamic range, small image lag (< 1%), and excellent(More)
Balanced (1 to 1) sex ratios are thought to evolve by a process known as frequency- dependent selection of the minority sex. Five populations of a fish with genetically based variation in temperature-dependent sex determination were maintained for 5 to 6 years in artificial constant-temperature environments that initially caused the sex ratio to be highly(More)