David Christian

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Alterations in the /•'///'/' gene region have been previously associated with smoking status and the occurrence of lung tumors. In the current study, we examined the nature of the mutations that occur at FHIT and the types of carcinogen exposures that are associated with FHIT alter ations. We screened 40 primary lung tumors for the presence of point(More)
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are(More)
M odern historiography has not fully appreciated the ecological complexity of the Silk Roads. As a result, it has failed to understand their antiquity, or to grasp their full importance in Eurasian history. The role played by the Silk Roads in exchanging goods, technologies , and ideas between regions of agrarian civilization is well understood. Less well(More)
This paper provides an approach to evaluating collaboration tools for distributed teams. Selected tool characteristics that increase tool usefulness will be presented and this set of characteristics will be used as the evaluation framework. The value of each tool will be determined by the amount of characteristic presence. A number of tools will be(More)
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric tumor of neural crest origin with heterogeneous phenotypes. Although low-stage tumors carry a favorable prognosis, >50% of high-risk NB relapses after treatment with a fatal outcome. Thus developing therapies targeting refractory NB remains an unsolved clinical problem. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its TrkB(More)
Ewing sarcoma (ES) develops in bones or soft tissues of children and adolescents. The presence of bone metastases is one of the most adverse prognostic factors, yet the mechanisms governing their formation remain unclear. As a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1, the fusion protein driving ES transformation, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed and(More)
The formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts within the respiratory epi thelium is thought to be a critical factor in the induction of lung cancer from tobacco smoke. A reliable surrogate measure of carcinogen damage to the lung would be of great value in molecular epidemiological studies of cancer risk. The validity of measurements of DNA adducts formed from(More)
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World history can provide a context for regional and national histories, but what is the context for world history itself? If world history is about the history of human beings, asking this question means asking about the place of human beings within modern knowledge. While most traditional cosmologies put humans at the center of the picture, the temporal(More)