David Chavalarias

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IMPORTANCE The use and misuse of P values has generated extensive debates. OBJECTIVE To evaluate in large scale the P values reported in the abstracts and full text of biomedical research articles over the past 25 years and determine how frequently statistical information is presented in ways other than P values. DESIGN Automated text-mining analysis(More)
Imitation is fundamental in the understanding of social systems' dynamics. But the diversity of imitation rules employed by modelers proves that the modeling of mimetic processes cannot avoid the traditional problem of endogenization of all the choices, including the one of the mimetic rules. Starting from the remark that metacognition and human reflexive(More)
OBJECTIVE Many different types of bias have been described. Some biases may tend to coexist or be associated with specific research settings, fields, and types of studies. We aimed to map systematically the terminology of bias across biomedical research. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING We used advanced text-mining and clustering techniques to evaluate 17,265,924(More)
We introduce an automated method for the bottom-up reconstruction of the cognitive evolution of science, based on big-data issued from digital libraries, and modeled as lineage relationships between scientific fields. We refer to these dynamic structures as phylomemetic networks or phylomemies, by analogy with biological evolution; and we show that they(More)
We propose new methods to detect paradigmatic fields through simple statistics over a scientific content database. We propose an asymmetric paradigmatic proximity metric between terms which provide insight into hierarchical structure of scientific activity and test our methods on a case study with a database made of several millions of resources. We also(More)
We develop analytical and computational models to study the conditions for the stability of a population consisting of agents with heterogeneous preferences. The analytical models that utilize an indirect evolutionary approach show that the ability to detect others’ types is critical for the evolution of reciprocal preferences. The computational models of(More)
Accurate and up-to-date knowledge of keywords entered by users who search or provide paedophile content is a key resource for filtering purposes and for monitoring by law enforcement institutions. However, such keywords are often hidden and may change frequently, and our current knowledge about them relies on manual inspection and field expertise. We(More)
We propose a series of methods to represent the evolution of a field of science at different levels: namely micro, meso and macro levels. We use a previously introduced asymmetric measure of paradigmatic proximity between terms that enable us to extract structure from a large publications database. We apply our set of methods on a case study from the(More)
There is an increasing pressure on scholars to publish to further or sustain a career in academia. Governments and funding agencies are greedy of indicators based on scientific production to measure science output. But what exactly do we know about the relation between publication levels and advances in science? How do social dynamics and norms interfere(More)