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Keeping confidential who sends which messages, in a world where any physical transmission can be traced to its origin, seems impossible. The solution presented here is unconditionally or cryptographically secure, depending on whether it is based on one-time-use keys or on public keys, respectively. It can be adapted to address efficiently a wide variety of(More)
Previously there have been essentially on!? t\vo models for computers t h a t people can use to handle ordinary consumer transactions: <i:i :he tamper-proof module, such as a smart card, that the person cannot modify or probe; and ( 2 ) the personal workstation whose inner working is totally under control of the individual. The first par t of this article(More)
Protocols are given for allowing a “prover” to convince a “verifier” that the prover knows some verifiable secret information, without allowing the verifier to learn anything about the secret. The secret can be probabilistically or deterministically verifiable, and only one of the prover or the verifier need have constrained resources. This paper unifies(More)