David Chalmers

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Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? The question invites two standard replies. Some accept the boundaries of skin and skull, and say that what is outside the body is outside the mind. Others are impressed by arguments suggesting that the meaning of our words ‘just ain’t in the head’, and hold that this externalism about meaning carries(More)
* In recent decades, an intriguing view of human cognition has garnered increasing support. According to this view, which I will call 'the hypothesis of extended cognition' ('HEC', hereafter), human cognitive processing literally extends into the environment surrounding the organism, and human cognitive states literally comprise—as wholes do their proper(More)
Consciousness fits uneasily into our conception of the natural world. On the most common conception of nature, the natural world is the physical world. But on the most common conception of consciousness, it is not easy to see how it could be part of the physical world. So it seems that to find a place for consciousness within the natural order, we must(More)
In fact, these questions indicate that there are three different types of explanatory gap for consciousness. There’s the absolute gap: Why should neural processes be ‘accompanied’ by any conscious experience at all? And there are two comparative gaps. First, there’s the intermodal comparative gap: Why does certain neural activity give rise to visual rather(More)
Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it,(More)
More than a decade ago, philosopher John Searle started a long-running controversy with his paper “Minds, Brains, and Programs” (Searle, 1980a), an attack on the ambitious claims of artificial intelligence (AI). With his now famous Chinese Room argument, Searle claimed to show that despite the best efforts of AI researchers, a computer could never recreate(More)
We hold that the first three questions should be answered positively (with some qualifications to be outlined). Block and Stalnaker hold that the first three questions should be answered negatively. Their central strategy is to argue for a negative answer to the first question, and to use this conclusion to argue for a negative answer to the second and(More)
structure in need of content. Different interpretations flesh out this content in different ways. The interpretations are not necessarily incompatible, although it is possible that some are ill-defined, or rest on false presuppositions. The relations between these interpretations, however, are not well-understood. The main project of this paper is to(More)