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This review and data analysis outline how fish biologists should most reliably estimate the minimal amount of oxygen needed by a fish to support its aerobic metabolic rate (termed standard metabolic rate; SMR). By reviewing key literature, it explains the theory, terminology and challenges underlying SMR measurements in fishes, which are almost always made(More)
Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the postprandial increase in oxygen uptake. Whereas it is easy to measure in fishes that remain calm and motionless during the entire digestion period, spontaneous locomotor activity is a frequent problem that leads to overestimation of SDA amplitude and magnitude (area under the curve, bound by the standard metabolic rate,(More)
Bowen's theory (1978) of differentiation is the personality variable most critical to mature development and the attainment of psychological health. The study of psychological differentiation has been confounded by confusion regarding the constructs being studied and the measurement tools used to assess them. The purpose of this review is to introduce and(More)
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