David Cameron Wraith

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Multiple sclerosis is a currently incurable inflammatory demyelinating syndrome. Recent reports suggest that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells may have therapeutic potential in experimental models of demyelinating disease, but various alternative mechanisms, ranging from systemic immune effects to local cell replacement, have been proposed. Here we(More)
Thymic selection depends on positive and negative selective mechanisms based on the avidity of T cell interaction with antigen-major histocompatibility complex complexes. However, peripheral mechanisms for the recruitment and clonal expansion of the responding T cell repertoire remain obscure. Here we provide evidence for an avidity-based model of(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can abrogate the animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), but whether this therapeutic effect occurs entirely through systemic immune modulation and whether CNS infiltration occurs after peripheral delivery are uncertain. We studied the clinical and neuropathologic effects of(More)
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced autoimmune disease mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Analysis of T cell receptors of myelin basic protein-specific encephalitogenic T cell clones derived from six different PL/J (H-2u) or (PL/J x SJL) F1 (H-2uxs) mice revealed a limited heterogeneity in primary structure. In vivo, the majority of T(More)
Regulatory CD4(+) T cells were induced in the Tg4 TCR transgenic mouse specific for the N-terminal peptide (Ac1-9) of myelin basic protein by intranasal administration of a high-affinity MHC-binding analog (Ac1-9[4Y]). Peptide-induced tolerant cells (PItol) were anergic, failed to produce IL-2, but responded to Ag by secretion of IL-10. PItol cells were(More)
A proportion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responding to infection by influenza recognize target cells that express the viral nucleoprotein. Recent work showed that CTL can recognize short overlapping regions of large nucleoprotein fragments expressed in transfected L cells. This led to the suggestion that CTL recognize segmental epitopes of denatured or(More)
Following induction of experimental encephalomyelitis with a T-cell clone, L10C1, that is specific for the myelin basic protein epitope p87-99, the inflammatory infiltrate in the central nervous system contains a diverse collection of T cells with heterogeneous receptors. We show here that when clone L10C1 is tolerized in vivo with an analogue of p87-99,(More)
AIMS we explored whether cellular fusion and heterokaryon formation between human and rodent cells in the cerebellum of mice occurs after intravenous injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The influence of central nervous system inflammation on this process was also assessed. In addition, we examined whether tumour necrosis(More)
We have shown previously that intranasal administration of encephalitogenic peptides in soluble form to H-2u and H-2s mice affords protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we demonstrate that this method of disease protection can be induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of the soluble peptide 35-55 from myelin(More)
Peptide binding and lymph node T cell activation studies have been used to characterize T cell recognition of an encephalitogenic T cell autoantigen from myelin basic protein in (PL/J x SJL)F1 mice. Amino acids that determine interactions with either the restriction element of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or the encephalitogenic T cell(More)