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A normal heart increases its contractile force with increasing heart rate. Although calcium handling and myofibrillar proteins have been implicated in maintaining this positive force-frequency relationship (FFR), the exact mechanisms by which it occurs have not been addressed. In this study, we have developed an analytical method to define the calcium-force(More)
Here we show that endothelial cells (EC) require matrix type 1-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) for the formation of lumens and tube networks in 3-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. A fundamental consequence of EC lumen formation is the generation of vascular guidance tunnels within collagen matrices through an MT1-MMP-dependent proteolytic process. Vascular(More)
Vascular smooth muscle calcium was measured during agonist treatment or pressure-induced stimulation of the myogenic response in isolated first-order skeletal muscle arterioles. Arterioles (40-180 microns) with spontaneous tone were isolated from rat cremaster muscle and cannulated. Arterioles were loaded with the calcium-sensitive dye fura-2 and excited at(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure lymphocyte velocity, lymphatic contraction, and shear stress in phasically contracting lymphatics in situ. METHODS A high-speed video system was used to capture multiple contraction cycles in rat mesenteric lymphatic preparations. The images were analyzed to determine fluid velocity, volume flow rate, wall shear stress, and retrograde(More)
Lymphatics are necessary for the generation and regulation of lymph flow. Lymphatics use phasic contractions and extrinsic compressions to generate flow; tonic contractions alter resistance. Lymphatic muscle exhibits important differences from typical vascular smooth muscle. In this study, the thoracic duct exhibited significant functional differences from(More)
BACKGROUND Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in metastasis of many solid tumors. To study lymphangiogenesis under controlled conditions, an in vitro model is needed. The goal of this work was to establish such an in vitro model by determining a molecular profile of rat mesenteric lymphatic endothelial cells (RMLEC) and characterizing their(More)
The effect of bradykinin (BK) on cytosolic calcium in coronary venular endothelial cells (CVEC) was studied using the intracellular calcium indicator indo 1. At normal extracellular calcium levels, CVEC responded to BK at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM; maximum cytosolic calcium spikes occurred at 10 nM. In calcium-free medium, poststimulation cytosolic(More)
BACKGROUND Lymph flow depends on both the rate of lymph production by tissues and the extent of passive and active pumping. Here we aim to characterize the passive mechanical properties of a lymphangion in both mid-lymphangion and valve segments to assess regional differences along a lymphangion, as well as evaluating its structural composition. METHODS(More)
We previously demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-elicited increase in the permeability of coronary venules was blocked by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). The aim of this study was to delineate in more detail the signaling pathways upstream from NO production in VEGF-induced venular(More)
BACKGROUND Air embolization of the pulmonary vascular tree increases pulmonary microvascular filtration and induces pulmonary edema formation. Flow from cannulated pulmonary lymphatic vessels increases significantly following air embolization. However, in the intact animal, lymph flows into the venous system and the magnitude of lymph flow is directly(More)