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Several lines of evidence suggest that different classes of nociceptive afferents mediate the responses produced by different rates of noxious skin heating. More specifically, low skin heating rates evoke nociceptive responses that appear to be mediated by the activation of capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber nociceptors, whereas high skin heating rates appear to(More)
Induction of peripheral inflammation increases the expression of the Nav1.7 sodium channel in sensory neurons, potentially increasing their excitability. Peripheral inflammation also produces hyperalgesia in humans and an increase in nociceptive responsiveness in animals. To test the relationship between these two phenomena we applied a recombinant herpes(More)
The rat foot withdrawal response to noxious radiant heat has been used as a model of nociception that is particularly useful for measurements of unilateral changes in nociceptive responses. The purpose of these studies was to characterize the foot withdrawal response to graded rates of noxious skin heating. Response latencies and both surface and subsurface(More)
Behavioral nociceptive responses evoked by relatively high rates of noxious radiant skin heating appear to be mediated by A delta nociceptor activation, whereas responses evoked by low rates of skin heating appear to be mediated by the activation of C-fiber nociceptors. This hypothesis was confirmed by the results of single unit recordings of A delta and C(More)
A variety of forms of painful stimulation were delivered to human subjects in order to determine whether therapeutic dosages of systemic morphine might produce significant attenuation of some forms of phasic pain that are tolerable for experimental usage. Consistent with previous reports, simple application of thermal or electrical energy to the skin (for 3(More)
Stimulation of neurons in the ventromedial medulla produces antinociception that is mediated in part by indirect activation of pontospinal noradrenergic neurons. Substance P-containing neurons located in the ventromedial medulla project to the A7 catecholamine cell group and may serve as an excitatory link between these two cell groups. Thus, the(More)
Although noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus locus coeruleus are known to project to the spinal cord, these neurons appear to innervate different regions of the spinal cord in Sprague-Dawley rats obtained from two different vendors. Recent anatomical studies demonstrated that the noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus in Sasco Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
To test the utility of gene therapeutic approaches for the treatment of pain, a recombinant herpes simplex virus, type 1, has been engineered to contain the cDNA for an opioid peptide precursor, human preproenkephalin, under control of the human cytomegalovirus promoter. This virus and a similar recombinant containing the Escherichia coli lacZ gene were(More)
Despite evidence that systemic morphine preferentially attenuates second pain sensations that are presumed to result from activation of unmyelinated (C) nociceptors, most animal models of nociception elicit sensations that result from or are dominated by activation of myelinated (A-delta) nociceptors. Therefore, methods were developed to directly compare(More)
Stimulation of neurons located in the ventromedial medulla (VMM), including the nucleus raphe magnus (RMg), produces antinociception which appears to be mediated in part by activation of spinally-projecting noradrenergic neurons located in the A7 catecholamine nucleus. Although the identity of the VMM neurons that project to the A7 nucleus is not known,(More)