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Thymic selection depends on positive and negative selective mechanisms based on the avidity of T cell interaction with antigen-major histocompatibility complex complexes. However, peripheral mechanisms for the recruitment and clonal expansion of the responding T cell repertoire remain obscure. Here we provide evidence for an avidity-based model of(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can abrogate the animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), but whether this therapeutic effect occurs entirely through systemic immune modulation and whether CNS infiltration occurs after peripheral delivery are uncertain. We studied the clinical and neuropathologic effects of(More)
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an induced autoimmune disease mediated by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Analysis of T cell receptors of myelin basic protein-specific encephalitogenic T cell clones derived from six different PL/J (H-2u) or (PL/J x SJL) F1 (H-2uxs) mice revealed a limited heterogeneity in primary structure. In vivo, the majority of T(More)
Regulation of the immune response to self- and foreign antigens is vitally important for limiting immune pathology associated with both infections and hypersensitivity conditions. Control of autoimmune conditions can be reinforced by tolerance induction with peptide epitopes, but the mechanism is not currently understood. Repetitive intranasal(More)
AIMS we explored whether cellular fusion and heterokaryon formation between human and rodent cells in the cerebellum of mice occurs after intravenous injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The influence of central nervous system inflammation on this process was also assessed. In addition, we examined whether tumour necrosis(More)
Following induction of experimental encephalomyelitis with a T-cell clone, L10C1, that is specific for the myelin basic protein epitope p87-99, the inflammatory infiltrate in the central nervous system contains a diverse collection of T cells with heterogeneous receptors. We show here that when clone L10C1 is tolerized in vivo with an analogue of p87-99,(More)
We have shown previously that intranasal administration of encephalitogenic peptides in soluble form to H-2u and H-2s mice affords protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we demonstrate that this method of disease protection can be induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of the soluble peptide 35-55 from myelin(More)
Peptide binding and lymph node T cell activation studies have been used to characterize T cell recognition of an encephalitogenic T cell autoantigen from myelin basic protein in (PL/J x SJL)F1 mice. Amino acids that determine interactions with either the restriction element of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or the encephalitogenic T cell(More)
Since the discovery of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the 1980s, a large body of work has led to its recognition as a pleiotropic immunomodulatory cytokine that affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems. IL-10 is produced by a wide range of cell types, but for the purposes of this review we shall focus on IL-10 secreted by CD4(+) T cells. Here we(More)
Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells play an important role in the allergic immune response to house dust mite (HDM) allergens in humans. The group 1 allergen of Dermatophagoides spp. is a major target antigen in both B and T cell recognition of HDM. In vitro studies have shown that the presentation of peptides to human T cells under appropriate conditions may(More)