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Rates of coronary restenosis after stent implantation vary with stent design. Recent evidence suggests that alterations in wall shear stress associated with different stent types and changes in local vessel geometry after implantation may account for this disparity. We tested the hypothesis that wall shear stress is altered in a three-dimensional(More)
Restenosis resulting from neointimal hyperplasia (NH) limits the effectiveness of intravascular stents. Rates of restenosis vary with stent geometry, but whether stents affect spatial and temporal distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in vivo is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in spatial WSS after stent implantation predict sites of NH(More)
BACKGROUND Isoflurane produces delayed preconditioning in vivo. The authors tested the hypothesis that endothelial, inducible, or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a trigger or mediator of this protective effect. METHODS In the absence or presence of exposure to isoflurane (1.0 minimum alveolar concentration) 24 h before experimentation,(More)
BACKGROUND The anesthetic noble gas, xenon, produces cardioprotection. We hypothesized that other noble gases without anesthetic properties [helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar)] also produce cardioprotection, and further hypothesized that this beneficial effect is mediated by activation of prosurvival signaling kinases [including(More)
Recent evidence suggests that oxygen free radicals may partially mediate irreversible ischemia-reperfusion injury in the myocardium. In the present study, the effect of a combination of two oxygen free radical scavengers, superoxide dismutase plus catalase (SOD + CAT), on the recovery of subendocardial segment function following 15 min of coronary artery(More)
Recent evidence indicates that hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial infarct size is related to blood glucose concentration in the presence or absence of ischemic preconditioning (PC) stimuli in canine models of diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemia.(More)
Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) mediates the protective effects of brief, repetitive ischemic episodes during early reperfusion after prolonged coronary artery occlusion. Brief exposure to isoflurane immediately before and during early reperfusion also produces cardioprotection, but whether mPTP is involved in this(More)
BACKGROUND Brief episodes of ischemia during early reperfusion after coronary occlusion reduce the extent of myocardial infarction. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling has been implicated in this "postconditioning" phenomenon. The authors tested the hypothesis that isoflurane produces cardioprotection during early reperfusion after myocardial(More)
Levosimendan is a new myofilament calcium (Ca2+) sensitizer that increases myocardial contractility by stabilizing the Ca2+-bound conformation of troponin C. We tested the hypothesis that levosimendan enhances cardiac performance after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Anesthesia was induced and maintained with midazolam, sufentanil, and vecuronium in 18(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the effects of anesthetic precondition to protect against ischemia and reperfusion injury, but the mechanisms of ROS generation remain unclear. In this study, the authors investigated if mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (mitotempol) abolishes the cardioprotective effects of anesthetic preconditioning.(More)