David C. Ward

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We have developed epifluorescence filter sets and computer software for the detection and discrimination of 27 different DNA probes hybridized simultaneously. For karyotype analysis, a pool of human chromosome painting probes, each labelled with a different fluor combination, was hybridized to metaphase chromosomes prepared from normal cells, clinical(More)
Rolling-circle amplification (RCA) driven by DNA polymerase can replicate circularized oligonucleotide probes with either linear or geometric kinetics under isothermal conditions. In the presence of two primers, one hybridizing to the + strand, and the other, to the - strand of DNA, a complex pattern of DNA strand displacement ensues that generates 10(9) or(More)
A method of in situ hybridization for visualizing individual human chromosomes from pter to qter, both in metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei, is reported. DNA inserts from a single chromosomal library are labeled with biotin and partially preannealed with a titrated amount of total human genomic DNA prior to hybridization with cellular or chromosomal(More)
Rad51 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a structural homolog of the Escherichia coli recombination enzyme RecA. In yeast, the Rad51 protein is required for mitotic and meiotic recombination and for repair of double-strand breaks in DNA. We have used antibodies raised against the homologous human protein, HsRad51, expressed in E. coli, to visualize the(More)
Repetitive DNA sequences have been demonstrated to play an important role for centromere function of eukaryotic chromosomes, including those from fission yeast, Drosophila melanogaster, and humans. Here we report on the isolation of a repetitive DNA element located in the centromeric regions of cereal chromosomes. A 745-bp repetitive DNA clone pSau3A9, was(More)
Antibodies against human Rad51 protein were used to examine the distribution of Rad51 on meiotic chromatin in mouse spermatocytes and oocytes as well as chicken oocytes during sequential stages of meiosis. We observed the following dynamic changes in distribution of Rad51 during meiosis: (1) in early leptotene nuclei there are multiple apparently randomly(More)
We have identified two allelic genomic cosmids from human chromosome 2, c8.1 and c29B, each containing two inverted arrays of the vertebrate telomeric repeat in a head-to-head arrangement, 5'(TTAGGG)n-(CCCTAA)m3'. Sequences flanking this telomeric repeat are characteristic of present-day human pretelomeres. BAL-31 nuclease experiments with yeast artificial(More)
Cosmid clones containing human DNA inserts have been mapped on chromosome 11 by fluorescence in situ hybridization under conditions that suppress signal from repetitive DNA sequences. Thirteen known genes, one chromosome 11-specific DNA repeat, and 36 random clones were analyzed. High-resolution mapping was facilitated by using digital imaging microscopy(More)
Fluorescence in situ hybridization has been used to visualize specific genomic DNA sequences in interphase nuclei. In normal diploid cells, unreplicated DNA segments give singlet hybridization signals while replicated loci are characterized by doublets. The distribution of these two patterns in unsynchronized cell populations can be used to determine the S(More)
A method is described for localizing DNA sequences hybridized in situ to Drosophila polytene chromosomes. This procedure utilizes a biotin-labeled analog of TTP that can be incorporated enzymatically into DNA probes by nick-translation. After hybridization in situ, the biotin molecules in the probe serve as antigens which bind affinity-purified rabbit(More)