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CONTEXT Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted infection. Baseline population prevalence data for HPV infection in the United States before widespread availability of a prophylactic HPV vaccine would be useful. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of HPV among females in the United States. DESIGN,(More)
BACKGROUND Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) include >40 sexually transmitted viruses. Most HPV infections do not progress to disease, but infection with certain types of HPV can cause cervical and other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer, and other types of HPV are associated with anogenital warts. HPV vaccines prevent infection with HPV 16 and 18,(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary but not sufficient cause of cervical cancer. While chlamydia infection has been associated with cervical cancer, the meaning of this association remains unclear. The authors' objective was to investigate this association by evaluating whether concurrent genital tract infections are associated with HPV(More)
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a co-receptor for a number of growth factors, morphogens, and adhesion proteins. HS biosynthetic modifications may determine the strength and outcome of HS-ligand interactions. We previously described the phenotype of mice with a gene-trap mutation in Hs2st, encoding the key HS 2-O-sulfotransferase enzyme in HS polymer modification.(More)
The majority of existing human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are based on multiplex PCR using consensus or degenerate primers. We developed a Templex HPV assay that simultaneously detects and identifies 25 common HPV genotypes in a single-tube reaction using type-specific primers for the HPV-specific E6 and E7 genes. The analytical sensitivities of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, isolated from diverse sources, exhibits genomic diversity. The mechanisms by which the genomic diversity takes place in individuals exposed to multiple virus isolates is yet to be elucidated. Genetic variation, in general, might result from mutagenic events such as point mutations, rearrangements (insertions and(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary but insufficient cause of cervical cancer. Factors influencing transcription, such as epigenetic silencing through viral DNA methylation, may impact neoplastic progression. Pyrosequencing technology was applied to quantify methylation at 19 cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites in the L1 3' and long control(More)
The consistent appearance of specific chromosomal translocations in human Burkitt lymphomas and murine plasmacytomas has suggested that these translocations might play a role in malignant transformation. Here we show that transformation of these cells is frequently accompanied by the somatic rearrangement of a cellular analogue of an avian retrovirus(More)
OBJECTIVES Polymorphisms in human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 have been shown to be related to geographic areas and are broadly classified as European (E), African (Af), Asian (As), or Asian-American (AA). Certain variants have been reported as being more likely to cause cervical disease; our objectives were to identify new HPV16 polymorphisms, to(More)
Three human ras family protooncogenes, c-Ki-ras-1, and c-Ki-ras-2, and N-ras, have been mapped to chromosome bands 6p11-12, 12p11.1-12.1, and 1p11-13, respectively by in situ molecular hybridization. Certain human cancers display consistent and specific alterations involving chromosomes 1, 6, and 12. The precise chromosomal localization of ras genes will(More)