David C Spink

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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants whose effects on biological systems depend on the number of and the positions of the chlorine substitutions. In the present study we examined the estrogenicity of the fully ortho-substituted PCB, 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,2',6,6'-TeCB). This PCB was chosen as the prototypical(More)
The 4-hydroxy metabolite of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) has been implicated in the carcinogenicity of this hormone. Previous studies showed that aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists induced a cytochrome P450 that catalyzed the 4-hydroxylation of E2. This activity was associated with human P450 1B1. To determine the relationship of the human P450 1B1 gene product(More)
Most research on the effects of chemicals on biologic systems is conducted on one chemical at a time. However, in the real world people are exposed to mixtures, not single chemicals. Although various substances may have totally independent actions, in many cases two substances may act at the same site in ways that can be either additive or nonadditive. Many(More)
Coumarin was previously found to cause tissue-selective toxicity in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of rats and mice, with rats being the more sensitive species. The aim of this study was to explore the role of target tissue biotransformation in OM-selective toxicity and the metabolic basis of the species differences in coumarin toxicity. At least six coumarin(More)
Human cytochromes P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) catalyze the metabolic activation of a number of procarcinogens and the hydroxylation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) at the C-2 and C-4 positions, respectively. The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a marked effect on estrogen metabolism in MCF-7(More)
Exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes an elevated cytochrome P450 content and a marked increase in the microsomal hydroxylation of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) at the C-2, C-4, C-15 alpha, and C-6 alpha positions. In this study we investigated the involvement of cytochromes P450 of the 1A gene subfamily in this(More)
Pig brain contains three forms of glutamate decarboxylase with pI values of 5.3, 5.5 and 5.8, referred to as the alpha-, beta- and gamma-forms respectively. These forms were purified and kinetically characterized. The major synaptic form of glutamate decarboxylase (the beta-form) migrated as a single band on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl(More)
The aims of this study are to identify the sex steroid-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and to determine the activities of VNO microsomes to metabolize estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Several P450 isoforms, including CYP1A2, CYP2A, CYP2B, CYP2C, CYP2G1, and CYP3A, NADPH P450-reductase, and microsomal epoxide(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), when activated by exogenous ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), regulates expression of several phase I and phase II enzymes and is also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. Several studies suggest that endogenous AhR ligand(s) may exist. One putative endogenous ligand is indirubin,(More)
MCF-7 breast tumor cells form multicellular foci in vitro when supplemented with 17 beta-estradiol (E2). In the presence of E2 and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), MCF-7 cells grow to confluence but do not form foci. To investigate the role of E2 metabolism in this antiestrogenic effect of TCDD, analyses were(More)