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Pig brain contains three forms of glutamate decarboxylase with pI values of 5.3, 5.5 and 5.8, referred to as the alpha-, beta- and gamma-forms respectively. These forms were purified and kinetically characterized. The major synaptic form of glutamate decarboxylase (the beta-form) migrated as a single band on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl(More)
The effects of a series of non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), a 17beta-estradiol (E2) 2-hydroxylase, and P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), an E2 4-hydroxylase, were investigated in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. Elevated rates of 2- and 4-methoxyestradiol (2- and 4-MeOE2) formation in PCB-treated cultures were measured as(More)
In a previous study of nine human breast-derived cell lines, rates of metabolism of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) were greatly enhanced when cultures were exposed to the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Elevated rates of E(2) hydroxylation at the C-2, -4, -6alpha and -15alpha positions were observed concomitant with the(More)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants whose effects on biological systems depend on the number of and the positions of the chlorine substitutions. In the present study we examined the estrogenicity of the fully ortho-substituted PCB, 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,2',6,6'-TeCB). This PCB was chosen as the prototypical(More)
Coumarin was previously found to cause tissue-selective toxicity in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of rats and mice, with rats being the more sensitive species. The aim of this study was to explore the role of target tissue biotransformation in OM-selective toxicity and the metabolic basis of the species differences in coumarin toxicity. At least six coumarin(More)
Most research on the effects of chemicals on biologic systems is conducted on one chemical at a time. However, in the real world people are exposed to mixtures, not single chemicals. Although various substances may have totally independent actions, in many cases two substances may act at the same site in ways that can be either additive or nonadditive. Many(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals are often environmental cocontaminants, yet there have been relatively few studies of combined effects of PAHs and metals on cytochrome P450 (P450)-catalyzed metabolism. We examined the effects of NaAsO(2) in combination with benzo[a]pyrene (BAP) on CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in T-47D human breast cancer cells by(More)
The 4-hydroxy metabolite of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) has been implicated in the carcinogenicity of this hormone. Previous studies showed that aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists induced a cytochrome P450 that catalyzed the 4-hydroxylation of E2. This activity was associated with human P450 1B1. To determine the relationship of the human P450 1B1 gene product(More)
Human cytochromes P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) catalyze the metabolic activation of a number of procarcinogens and the hydroxylation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) at the C-2 and C-4 positions, respectively. The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a marked effect on estrogen metabolism in MCF-7(More)
The effects of 12 non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on the induction of human cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), an estradiol 4-hydroxylase, were investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Three independent quantitative assays were used, in which the rates of estrogen metabolism, the levels of the CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 mRNAs, and(More)