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Atmospheric moisture cycling is an important aspect of the Earth's climate system, yet the processes determining atmospheric humidity are poorly understood. For example, direct evaporation of rain contributes significantly to the heat and moisture budgets of clouds, but few observations of these processes are available. Similarly, the relative contributions(More)
Bacteria adapt to environmental stimuli by adjusting their transcriptomes in a complex manner, the full potential of which has yet to be established for any individual bacterial species. Here, we report the transcriptomes of Bacillus subtilis exposed to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions that the organism might encounter in nature. We(More)
[1] Global measurements of the 500–825 hPa layer mean HDO/H 2 O ratio from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are used to expose differences in the dominant hydrologic processes in the Amazon, north Australian, and Asian monsoon regions. The data show high regional isotopic variability and numerous values unexpected from classical Rayleigh theory.(More)
[1] Evaluating the representation of processes controlling tropical and subtropical tropospheric relative humidity (RH) in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) is crucial to assess the credibility of predicted climate changes. GCMs have long exhibited a moist bias in the tropical and subtropical mid and upper troposphere, which could be due to the(More)
[1] The goal of this paper is to investigate the added value of water isotopic measurements to estimate the relative influence of large‐scale dynamics, convection, and land surface recycling on the Sahelian water budget. To this aim, we use isotope data in the lower tropospheric water vapor measured by the SCIAMACHY and TES satellite instruments and in situ(More)
[1] The subtropical convective boundary layer (CBL) plays a critical role in climate by regulating the vertical exchange of moisture, energy, trace gases, and pollutants between the ocean surface and free troposphere. Yet bulk features of this exchange are poorly constrained in climate models. To improve our understanding of moisture transport between the(More)
[1] We present global, vertical profile estimates of the HDO/H 2 O ratio from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite. We emphasize in this paper the estimation approach and error characterization, which are critical to determining the very small absolute concentration of HDO relative to H 2 O and its(More)
This study demonstrates the application of Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology which is used to measure the stable isotopic composition of water. This isotopic water analyzer incorporates an evaporator system that allows liquid water as well as water vapor to be measured with high precision. The analyzer can measure(More)
[1] The Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere. This study examines the evolution of the hydrologic regime from before the onset of the MJO (pre‐onset period) to the MJO onset period, using deuterated water vapor (HDO) measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and(More)