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Although the concept of maximal oxygen uptake (V-dotO(2max)) was conceived as early as 1923, the criteria used to establish whether a true V-dotO(2max) has been attained have been heavily criticised. Consequently, an improvement in the methodology of the existing criteria, or development of new criteria, is required. In order to be valid across experimental(More)
Appropriate verbal instruction is critical to effective guidance of movements. Internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional focusing instructions have been shown to influence movement kinetics and muscular activity; this study investigated their effects during a force production task. Twenty-five participants (mean age of 22.72 +/-(More)
OBJECTIVES Feedback deception is used to explore the importance of expectations on pacing strategy and performance in self-paced exercise. The deception of feedback from a previous performance explores the importance of experience knowledge on exercise behaviour. This study aimed to explore the acute and residual effects of the deception of previous(More)
The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention resulted in(More)
In this study, criteria are used to identify whether a subject has elicited maximal oxygen uptake. We evaluated the validity of traditional maximal oxygen uptake criteria and propose a novel set of criteria. Twenty athletes completed a maximal oxygen uptake test, consisting of an incremental phase and a subsequent supramaximal phase to exhaustion(More)
UNLABELLED The psychological construct of affect is proposed to significantly contribute to pacing decisions during exercise. Borg's RPE scale, another important regulator of work rate, is criticized as an inadequate measure of the multiple perceptual responses experienced. This study aimed to examine power output distribution and associated changes in(More)
This experiment assessed the influence of internal (movement) or external (outcome) attentional focusing instructions on force production and muscular activity at different movement speeds. Twenty five participants completed 10 reps of single arm elbow flexions on an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60°, 180° and 300°s(-1) under three conditions (control(More)
OBJECTIVES Whilst the presence of a competitor has been found to improve performance, the mechanisms influencing the change in selected work rates during direct competition have been suggested but not specifically assessed. The aim was to investigate the physiological and psychological influences of a visual avatar competitor during a 16.1-km cycling time(More)
Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward(More)