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Symbiotic associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous and ecologically important in many grasslands. Differences in species responses to mycorrhizal colonization can have a significant influence on plant community structure. The growth responses of 36 species of warm- and cool-season tallgrass prairie grasses and 59 tallgrass(More)
In perennial grasslands, the below-ground population of meristems (bud bank) plays a fundamental role in plant population dynamics. Here, we tested the 'meristem limitation hypothesis' prediction - that bud banks increase along an increasing precipitation/productivity gradient in North American grasslands - and assessed the seasonal dynamics of bud banks.(More)
We examined the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystems using soil aggregate stability and C and N storage as representative ecosystem processes. We utilized a wide gradient in AMF abundance, obtained through long-term (17 and 6 years) large-scale field manipulations. Burning and N-fertilization increased soil AMF hyphae, glomalin-related(More)
Responses to defoliation were studied in two tallgrass prairie perennials (Andropogon gerardii and Panicum virgatum) established from seed at three densities. P. virgatum was also grown from transplanted rhizomes of established clones. Plants of both species displayed a continuum of responses to defoliation, from large reductions in biomass, tillering and(More)
Forb populations were sampled on Kansas tallgrass prairie to examine the effects of native (bison) and domestic (cattle) ungulates on plant growth, reproduction, and species abundances. Five locally and regionally abundant native tallgrass prairie perennials, Baptisia bracteata, Oenothera speciosa, Vernonia baldwinii, Solidago missouriensis, and Salvia(More)
Symbiotic associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous in many herbaceous plant communities and can have large effects on these communities and ecosystem processes. The extent of species-specificity between these plant and fungal symbionts in nature is poorly known, yet reciprocal effects of the composition of plant and(More)
Experimental microcosms (40 X 52 X 32 cm) containing an assemblage of eight tallgrass prairie grass and forb species in native prairie soil were maintained under mycorrhizal (untreated control) or mycorrhizal-suppressed (fungicide-treated) conditions to examine plant growth, demographic, and community responses to mycorrhizal symbiosis. The fungicide(More)
Responses to clipping and bison grazing in different environmental contexts were examined in two perennial grass species, Andropogon gerardii and Panicum virgatum, on the Konza Prairie in northeastern Kansas. Grazed tillers had lower relative growth rates (RGR) than clipped tillers following defoliation but this difference was transient and final biomass(More)
Several studies investigating the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in plant communities have included manipulations of AM fungal symbiosis using the fungicide benomyl. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential non-target e€ects of benomyl on soil biota and nutrient cycling in tallgrass prairie and to determine how mycorrhizae may(More)
Insect herbivory can have important effects on plant life histories and architecture. We quantified the impact that a cynipid gall wasp, Antistrophus silphii, had on growth, reproduction, and biomass allocation patterns of Silphium integrifolium growing in the tallgrass prairie of northeastern Kansas. Experimentally galled individual Silphium shoots(More)