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The purpose of this investigation is to understand situations under which an enhancement method succeeds in recovering an image from data which are noisy and blurred. The method in question is due to Rudin and Osher. The method selects, from a class of feasible images, one that has the least total variation. Our investigation is limited to images which have(More)
This paper is devoted to a numerical algorithm for the maximization of band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals in square lattices. We first apply the finite element method to solve the eigenvalue problem, then use the piecewise constant level set (PCLS) method to maximize the band gaps. The PCLS method is very powerful for representing and modeling(More)
Broiler chicks were fed diets differing in calcium (Ca) level, source, and particle size. The basal diet fed in most experiments contained .62% total phosphorus and .49% Ca from sources other than the Ca sources being compared. Performance was not affected by Ca source in diets with .9% Ca. In diets with 1.5% Ca, gain and bone ash were significantly lower(More)
Forty lactating Holstein cows were fed 0, 5.9, 11.7, or 17.4% processed poultry excreta in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was evaluated on feed intake, BW, milk yield, and composition. Processes poultry excreta appeared to be well accepted by cows even when included in rations at 17.4% of total DM. Mean DM intake averaged 19.3, 19.7, 19.5, and(More)
In the study of photonic crystals, the question arises naturally: which crystals produce the largest band gaps? This question is investigated by means of an optimization-based evolution algorithm which, given two dielectric materials, seeks to produce a material distribution within the fundamental cell which produces a maximal band gap at a given point in(More)
A method for computing band structures for three-dimensional photonic crystals is described. The method combines a mixed nite element discretization on a uniform grid with a fast Fourier transform preconditioner and a preconditioned sub-space iteration algorithm. Numerical examples illustrating the behavior of the method are presented. 1. Introduction(More)
Electrical impedance tomography is a procedure by which one nds the conductivity distribution inside a domain from measurements of voltages and currents at the boundary. This work addresses the issue of stability and resolution limit of such an imaging device. We consider the realistic case where only a nite number of measurements are available. An(More)