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This paper describes algorithms for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform the desired maneuver. For example, control algorithms allow the simulated humans to maintain balance while(More)
Virtual environments and games often include animated characters that must respond to the actions of the user. The unpredictable actions of the user require a highly interactive environment that is not amenable to motion generation techniques based on a library of predeened sequences. In this paper, we present one approach to populating interactive virtual(More)
The hybrid magnetic resonance (MR)/X-ray suite (XMR) is a recently introduced imaging solution that provides new possibilities for guidance of cardiovascular catheterization procedures. We have previously described and validated a technique based on optical tracking to register MR and X-ray images obtained from the sliding table XMR configuration. The aim(More)
Simulation composability has been much more difficult to realize than some initially imagined. We believe that success lies in explicit considerations for the adaptability of components. In this paper we show that the complexity of optimal component selection for adaptable components is NP-complete. However, our approach allows for the efficient adaptation(More)
Pedestrian navigation is a complex function of human dynamics, a desired destination, and the presence of obstacles. People cannot stop and start instantaneously and their turning abilities are influenced by kinematic and dynami-cal constraints. A realistic model of human walking paths is an important development for entertainment applications and many(More)
Birds, sh, and many other animals are able to move gracefully and eeciently as a herd, ock, or school. We would like to reproduce this behavior for herds of arti-cial creatures with signiicant dynamics. This paper develops an algorithm for grouping behaviors and evaluates the performance of the algorithm on two types of systems: a full dynamic simulation of(More)
How much effort will be required to compose or reuse simulations? What factors need to be considered? It is generally known that composability and reusability are daunting challenges for both simulations and more broadly software design as a whole. We have conducted a small case study in order to clarify the role that model context plays in simulation(More)