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This paper describes algorithms for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform the desired maneuver. For example, control algorithms allow the simulated humans to maintain balance while(More)
If simulations could be coerced-literally reshaped-to conform to requirements different from those for which they were originally designed, many of the challenges facing the simulation community should become less daunting. Success could foster reuse, enable linkages between multi-resolution models, and increase the chances of success for interoperability(More)
Virtual environments and games often include animated characters that must respond to the actions of the user. The unpredictable actions of the user require a highly interactive environment that is not amenable to motion generation techniques based on a library of predeened sequences. In this paper, we present one approach to populating interactive virtual(More)
The hybrid magnetic resonance (MR)/X-ray suite (XMR) is a recently introduced imaging solution that provides new possibilities for guidance of cardiovascular catheterization procedures. We have previously described and validated a technique based on optical tracking to register MR and X-ray images obtained from the sliding table XMR configuration. The aim(More)
The recent finding of neuronal degeneration in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) in Alzheimer's disease suggests a possible role of this nucleus and the cholinergic system in dementing illness. We assessed neuronal population and density in two anatomical levels of the nbM in 38 coded brains from patients with a broad variety of neurological disorders.(More)
Simulation composability has been much more difficult to realize than some initially imagined. We believe that success lies in explicit considerations for the adaptability of components. In this paper we show that the complexity of optimal component selection for adaptable components is NP-complete. However, our approach allows for the efficient adaptation(More)
Except under very constrained circumstances, reusing simulations without design or code modifications has proven elusive. Simulation reuse is highly desirable. Benefits of reuse appear in many forms: employing a simulation in an alternative context and/or with different inputs, coalescing (composing) a simulation with others to create a federation with(More)